Lesson 8

Giving Credit: Citing Sources

A proper citation has two elements. A footnote (may also be an endnote or parenthetical reference) is placed next to each quote or paraphrase in order to document its source. A list of all references (also called a bibliography or works cited) used in the research project should be compiled at the end of the paper.

A section of paper written in the Modern Language Association (MLA) style might look like this:*

     In studying the influence of Latin American, African,

and Asian music on modern American composers, music historians

tend to discuss such figures as Aaron Copland, George Gershwin,

Henry Cowell, Alan Hovhaness, and John Cage (Brindle; Griffiths

104-39; Hitchcock 173-98). They usually overlook Duke Ellington,

whom Gunther Schuller rightly calls "one of America's great

composers" (318,probably because they are familiar only with

Ellington's popular pieces, like "Sophisticated Lady," Mood

Indigo," and "Solitude."
                         Works Cited
Brindle, Reginald Smith. "The Search Outwards: The Orient, Jaxx,

     Archaisms." The New Music: The Avant-Garde since 1945.

     New York: Oxford UP, 1975. 133-45.
Griffiths, Paul.A Concise History of Avant-Garde Music: From

     Debussy to Boulez. New York: Oxford UP, 1978.
Hitchcock, H. Wiley. Music in the United States: An Introduction.

     2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs: Prentic, 1974.
Schuller, Gunther. Early Jazz: Its Roots and Musical Development.

     New York: Oxford UP, 1968.

*Example taken from Joseph Gibaldi, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 5th ed., (New York: The Modern Language Assocation of America, 1999, 292-93.

In the above example, the parenthetical references give credit to the authors from whom the writer borrowed ideas. The entries in the works cited list show the reader where to find the sources the writer quoted or paraphrased. Regardless of the style used, citations always include as many of the following elements as available: author's name, title of work, city of publication, publisher's name, date of publication, and page numbers (if only a portion of the work is being cited). Article citations include the title of the periodical, volume number and issue number in place of the city and publisher's name. Style manuals dictate the format (punctuation, spacing, abbreviations used, and so on) in which these elements appear.

The table below indicates the styles commonly used by disciplines at Andrews University.** Call numbers indicate books owned by the James White Library.

Style Manual Academic Departments

Janet S. Dodd, ed., The ACS Style Guide (Washington, DC: American Chemcial Society, 1986).
Call # QD8.5 .A25 1986
American Chemical Society: ACS Books References Style Guidelines


American Institute of Physics, Style Manual, 5th ed., (New York: Author, 1990).
Download AIP Style Manual 4th Edition


Committee on the AMS, A Manual for Authors of Mathematical Papers, 8th ed., (Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society, 1990).
Out of print

American Medical Association Manual of Style, 9th ed. (Baltimore: Williams & Wilkens, 1998).
Call # R119 .A533 1998
AMA Style Guide
Physical Therapy
American Psychological Association, Publication Manual, 5th ed. (Washington, DC: Author, 2001).
Call # BF76.7 .P83 2001
See APA Style for help with citing electronic sources.

Behavioral Sciences
Computer Science and Information Systems
Educational Administration and Supervision
Educational and Counseling Psychology
English: Rhetoric and Composition emphasis
Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology
Teaching and Learning

CBE Style Manual Committee, Scientific style and format : the CBE manual for authors, editors, and publishers, 6th ed. (Cambridge, NY Cambridge University Press: 1994, reprinted 1999).
Call # T11 .S386 1994
CBE Style Form Guide

Joseph Gibaldi, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed., (New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 2003).
Call # PE1478 .M57 2003
See MLA Style for help with citing electronic sources

English: Literature and Language emphases
International Languages

Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, These, and Dissertations, 6th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996).
Call # LB2369 .T8 1996
See Turabian for help with citing electronic sources.

Accounting, Economics, and Finance
Art, Art History, and Design
Aviation Technology
Engineering Technology
History and Political Science
Management and Marketing
Physical Education and Health
Religion and Biblical Languages
Technology Education
SDA Theological Seminary

**Committee on Instruction and Research, Andrews University Standards for Written Work, 9th ed., (Berrien Springs, MI: Andrews University Press, 1999).

The fields of Allied Health, Nutrition, Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology may model their citation style on those used by core research journals in their disciplines. Refer to the Andrews University Standards for Written Work or ask your professor for more information.

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