A- Nurture and Retention Symposium
A-1 Perceptions of Health Behaviors by Seventh-day Adventist Undergraduate Students: Do parents and religion matter?
Alina M. Baltazar1, Curtis VanderWaal1, Kathryn Conopio2, 1Department of Social Work, 2MSA student in Community and International Development
This qualitative study investigated college students’ perception of drug and alcohol use, and sexual activity, in order to gain a better understanding of the decision making process regarding participation in health risk behaviors. In addition, questions were asked in regards to the influence parents and religion may have on these behaviors. There were 52 undergraduate students of a Seventh-day Adventist university who participated in six focus groups. The results were coded and analyzed, and a theoretical model was developed describing the students’ perception of drug and alcohol use, and sexual activity, what influences those perceptions, and how those perceptions may influence decision making. Subcategories of each component of the theoretical model were identified and are illustrated by narrative data. Results will include implications on how healthy behavior choices influence commitment to the church. Implications for health risk behavior research and practice, Seventh-day Adventist university administrators, church youth directors, parents, and clinical practice are addressed.
A-2 Internalization of Distinctive Religious Practices is Associated with Increased Well-Being
Karl G. D. Bailey, Department of Behavioral Sciences
The relationship between well-being and religion is complex. For some religious individuals, well being is higher on average than among non-religious individuals; for others, it is much lower. What makes the difference? Internalization of religious beliefs and practices appears to predict the direction of the relationship. The current study replicates the finding that internalization is related to well-being in Seventh-day Adventist young adults and extends it to a distinctive religious practice, Sabbath keeping. Internalization of Sabbath keeping was measured by a new instrument developed using Self-Determination Theory. An exploratory factor analysis of responses from 347 Seventh-day Adventist young adults from the same community supported three internalization factors underlying Sabbath keeping experiences, each of which was moderately associated with higher subjective well-being. Moreover, a more general measure of internalization of religion only weakly mediated the relationship between internalization of Sabbath keeping and well-being, indicating a unique contribution of internalizing distinctive practices.
A-3 Correlates of Perceived Emotional/Verbal and Spiritual Abuse of Adult Children of Pastors
Duane McBride1, Wendy Thompson2, David Sedlacek3, & Rene Drumm4, 1Department of Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Social Work, 3Department of Discipleship & Religious Education, 4School of Social Work, Southern Adventist University, Collegedale, TN
Social Scientists as well as pastors have often expressed concern about the consequences of the stress experienced by the children of pastors. We conducted an on-line survey of pastors, spouses, and adult children for the North American Division. A total of 171 adult children of NAD pastors completed the survey. Overall, while less than 5%, reported any form of physical or sexual abuse, about 25% reported some concern about emotional/verbal abuse with 17% expressing at least some concern about spiritual abuse. Data analysis showed moderate to relatively high correlations between perceptions of being emotionally/verbally or spiritually abused and self-reports of concern about substance abuse, mental health, gambling, congregant/community behavioral expectations, domestic violence, and same sex attraction (between .20 & .46). There were also significant correlations with difficulty with personal prayer. These correlations strongly suggest that abuse may occur within a context of family dysfunction and congregant/community pressure that may result in a wide range of chemical and behavioral addictions and a diminished prayer life as well as mental health problems. It is important for the Church to be aware of these issues and to provide support services to reduce the stresses placed on the family of clergy and provide needed preventive and intervention services to improve the spiritual life and retention of pastor’s children.
A-4 Welcoming Nonverbal Behavior: A Case Study of Group Communication and Visitor Impressions
Katelyn Ruiz, MA student in Communication
With consideration for interpersonal communications within a group setting, the literature suggests that specific nonverbal behaviors can positively influence the development of relationships between communicators. This study sought to identify and represent those behaviors and their relationship to a visitor’s perception of welcome. Following video- and photo-elicitation interviews with the 20 student volunteers in this qualitative case study, data was collected and coded to reveal three overlapping categories of nonverbal behavior that impact a visitor’s first-time experience in a Seventh-day Adventist Church. The repeated, consistent, congruent actions identified as kinesics, chronemics, and proxemics were seen to correlate with either a positive or negative participant reflection on the overall encounter. This information is compounded by the significant expansion of the communication model to include elements of attribution theory and expectancy violations theory in predicting the outcome of a nonverbal communicative encounter. Based on the identified behaviors, including handshaking; head nodding; leaning; smiling; a longer, but regulated length of interaction; socially-anticipated times of service; and spontaneous member-initiated encounters, recommendations can be provided to the church site and additional parochial groups interested in improving the welcoming visitor culture of their community.
B-Theology and History of Religion
B-1 Trinitarian Development in the Early Danish Adventist Church
Paul B. Petersen, Department of Religion
The SDA Church went through a development of thinking in relation to the doctrine of the trinity, from outright opposition through skepticism to final acceptance. The similar movement, however, never took place in the early Adventist in Denmark which was never perceived as in conflict with the general Christian understanding of the trinity. This presentation, based on the Danish sources, will analyze the background and identify some reasons for this “anomaly”.
B-2 Lessons and Legacies of the Role of Scripture in Scottish Missions to Contemporary Missionary Praxis
Kelvin Onongha, PhD candidate in World Missions
Scottish missions have played a pivotal role in missionary history in the continents of Asia and Africa establishing educational and medical institutions where the Scriptures could be taught. Through these institutions the influence of the Bible brought transformation to these societies with legacies that are enduring to this day. Unfortunately, however, this unforgettable period of mission history passed and all we are left with are its memories. This paper seeks to explore the essential qualities that gave vitality and impetus to this phenomenon, what made this experience unique among others, how did the Bible and their understanding of it contribute to their success, and what lessons they have for contemporary missions as they are conducted today.
B-3 A Lesson of Unity from Catholicism: The Experience of Maurice Blondel and Alfred Loisy during the Challenge of Modernism
Davide Sciarabba, PhD student in Theology and Christian Philosophy
The search for unity pushed the leadership of the Catholic Church to reject modernism between the end of 1800 and the beginning of 1900. The official reaction against modernists, beside the official documents, was not very uniform. Some scholars were excommunicated by the Vatican, others were not. Though both French scholars, Blondel and Loisy received different treatment, Loisy was excommunicated, one year after the encyclical Pascendi, while Blondel received no personal warning or excommunication. An analysis of their writings shows that their thoughts were equally inacceptable for Catholicism. But Blondel’s attitude was decisive, allowing him to continue in the Church and to influence the Church in the years to come, to the point that his writings opened the way toward Vatican II. The purpose of this paper is to show, through the lessons learned from the case of Blondel and Loisy, that attitude is the most important element to keep unity and to reform the Church at the same time. Dissent from the leadership of the church, even useful and lawful, is not in itself the issue. But attitude is the key of success to keep unity in the Church, being Catholic or Adventist. In Adventism, dissent from the leadership of the church might also be theoretically licit and necessary for growth, but still the right spiritual attitude is essential to reform the Church while keeping its unity.
B-4 The role of Christian Doctrine in contemporary Theological Interpretation of Scripture: a brief analysis
Adriani Milli Rodrigues, PhD candidate in Theology and Christian Philosophy
One of the main features of the contemporary Theological Interpretation of Scripture movement is the idea that Christian Doctrine plays a crucial role in biblical interpretation. In this context, the role of doctrine in theological interpretation is particularly defined in terms of taking into account the rule faith in the reading of the biblical text. However, a brief comparison between some scholars, such as Kevin Vanhoozer, Daniel Treier, and Robert Wall, shows that there are significant disagreements with regard to the concept of the rule of faith and its role in the interpretation of Scripture. In this sense, I attempt to clarify these disagreements and briefly analyze the hermeneutical use of the rule of faith in biblical interpretation. I contend that the hermeneutical role of the rule of faith in contemporary Theological Interpretation of Scripture is especially derived from notions about the nature and function of Scripture.
C- Biblical Studies
C-1 Sentient or Silent? The Personification of Stones and Wood in Habakkuk 2
A. Rahel Schafer, Department of Religion and Biblical Languages
The portrayal of stones and wood in Habakkuk 2 highlights the utter corruption of the wicked, who build their houses through iniquity and by the blood of others. Reminiscent of the blood of Abel crying from the ground (Gen 4:10), the very stones and beams of the house cry out at the injustice and violence of the builder (Hab 2:11). The alliteration, assonance, and similar word length between verses 11 and 12 suggest a literal message that the stones and wood are to cry out. However, the parallel section in 2:18-19 reverses this literal depiction. Thus, it follows that Hab 2:11 is not assuming that stones and wood literally cry out, but is personifying them. The literary connections in Habakkuk 2 suggest that this personification mainly serves to draw attention to the connection between injustice and idolatry. Through indictment (2:11-12) and mockery (2:18-19), Habakkuk’s personification of stones and wood graphically illustrates the links between idol worship and violent iniquity, perhaps even hinting at a causal relationship.
C-2 Justifying the God of the Akedah: Interpretation as Theodicy
Arlyn S. Drew, PhD student in Theology and Christian Philosophy
Theodicies attempt to justify how an omniscient, omnipotent, omnibenevolent God could allow evil in our world. The Akedah (Binding of Isaac) intensifies this challenge for in Genesis 22:1-19, God Himself requires Abraham to offer his son as a burnt offering. Even though a ram was divinely provided at the end, disturbing implications about the morality of the divine Tester’s methodology linger on. Because most theological interpretations of the Akedah attempt to justify God or Abraham’s actions, this study will evaluate major interpretive traditions of the Akedah as theodicies, analyze the moral logic used and propose a comprehensive theodicy model that illuminates their relation to each other.
C-3 The Deliverance of “I” in Rom 7:24-25
Ronald Rojas, PhD student in Old Testament
Most commentators believe that Rom 7:25a describes an expression of gratitude of “I” for being delivered. However, because the clause is verbless, it is debatable whether the author envisioned the deliverance as already past or still future. The importance of answering this dilemma underlies in the theological implications for the Christian living. If this passage refers to a post-conversion state (future deliverance), Calvinists are right in claiming that sinless life is impossible as long as we live here. But if it refers to a pre-conversion state (past deliverance), Arminians are right in saying that Christians are able to overcome sin. An exploration of the indicators of time and sequence in Rom 7-8 reveals that Rom 7:25a aims to an eschatological deliverance of the body of death rather than a past liberation from the law of sin.
C-4 Representative Headship in Genesis 1-3
Erick Mendieta, PhD student in Old Testament
The topic of representative headship of Adam in Genesis has been suggested for scholars against woman’s ordination. On the other hand, this idea has been overlooked or dismissed by scholars in favor of woman’s ordination. However, three important issues calls for a careful consideration to ascertain if this concept is present in Genesis and if it does what are its implications: First, there is almost a consensus by New Testament scholars that the concept of representative headship of Adam is the foundation of Paul’s argument for his Adam’s Christology. Second, the concept of representative headship or federal headship is foundational to Reformed theology and finally it seems also that Ellen White suggests this idea. Is there in first three chapters of Genesis evidence to support the idea of representative headship and if there is, what is the scope of this representative headship?
D- Literature and the Humanities
D-1 Shakespeare and the Cultural Olympiad: Contesting Gender and the British Nation in the BBC’s Hollow Crown
L. Monique Pittman, Department of English
As part of the 2012 Cultural Olympiad celebrating both the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee and the London Olympics, the BBC launched a season of programs entitled, “Shakespeare Unlocked.” To boost cultural capital, the BBC partnered with the Royal Shakespeare Company and its World Shakespeare Festival as well as the British Museum. “Shakespeare Unlocked” featured a range of programming, including a documentary hosted by Simon Schama, scene performances and analyses by members of the Royal Shakespeare Company, and freshly produced, full-length adaptations. Described as “a season exploring how one man captured so much about what it means to be human,” Shakespeare Unlocked most notably presented the plays of the second tetralogy in four feature-length adaptations that aired in June and July of 2012. These plays so obviously engaged with the question of English nationalism suited a year in which the United Kingdom wrestled with British identity in a post-colonial and post-Great Recession world. Released under the unifying title The Hollow Crown, these films project in the maturation of Tom Hiddleston as Hal a concept of British identity—Caucasian, male, and virile—rooted in surprising traditionalism and feature lamentably outdated approaches to casting and staging. In Shakespeare Unlocked, the BBC marshaled programming to showcase a British cultural icon, Shakespeare the Great Humanist, who captures “so much about what it means to be human.” But The Hollow Crown reveals yet again that the gender and ethnic identity of that “human” continues to be defined, at least for the BBC, within fairly narrow borders.
D-2 Physiognomy, Art, and Artifice in The Rape of Lucrece and The Devil’s Law-Case
Vanessa Corredera, Department of English
Critics have noted two predominant, competing attitudes toward art in the Renaissance. For some, art was problematic because its artifice obfuscated reality. For others, art elevated humankind by allowing artists to create, like God. Early modern artistic treatises, however, reveal that artists also valued art because of its physiognomic ability. In other words, they believed that art could communicate the painted individual’s true nature, attitude, and perhaps even secrets, especially through the face, a theory about art literary critics largely overlook. But even as artists acknowledged art’s epistemological power, they also faced the potential idealization undertaken in any artistic endeavor, especially portraits, works of art most likely to signify physiognomically. These varied approaches to and ideas about art also appear in Renaissance literature. While many texts consider the status of art, in William Shakespeare’s poem The Rape of Lucrece, the titular protagonist directly articulates and confronts the tension between art as physiognomic communicator and artificial epistemological obstructer, with a particular focus on the overlooked role of physiognomy and art. A similar interrogation of art’s illuminative vs. deceptive status occurs in John Webster’s drama The Devil’s Law-Case. Yet Webster’s text takes into account something Lucrece does not, the important role gender plays in both the creation and reception of art. Thus, by carefully considering the characterization of art in both The Rape of Lucrece and The Devil’s Law-Case, we can examine the importance of physiognomy and gender, respectively, to Renaissance art’s complicated status.
D-3 The Moral Realism of Iris Murdoch
Ante Jeroncic, Department of Religion
Even a scant acquaintance with current cultural and philosophical trends will readily point to a widespread predilection for subjectivist forms of moral reasoning. By “subjectivist” I refer to various non-cognitivist and constructionist paradigms in moral philosophy and popular parlance that reduce ethical statements to expressions of individual or collective preferences, feelings, or prejudices stripped of any object-given normativity. Furthermore, various poststructuralist and postcolonial “genealogies” tie the language of morality to discourses of power, patriarchy, and totalitarian agency. The conventional presumption informing such misgivings is that the quest for moral objectivism, and ethical norms in general, is either impossible or exclusionary, or perhaps both. My research project seeks to engage such criticisms through a critical exploration of Iris Murdoch’s moral philosophy and her particular form of Platonism. I argue that Murdoch’s thought presents a helpful corrective to voluntarist approaches to ethics and that her defense of metaphysical realism and transcendence offers fruitful avenues for theologians to engage her thought, including Adventist ones.
D-4 Short Stories in the French Classroom: An additional way to seek knowledge, affirm faith and change the world?
Sonia Badenas, Department of International Language Studies
From the classical fables to the gospel parables, from the oldest runes to the last versions of “Chicken soup for the soul”, short stories and related genres have been in all cultures significant instruments of communication. Used to teach ethics, to convey wisdom, to transmit knowledge, to awake spiritual enlightenment, or merely to entertain, short stories of all sorts have played an important role in the history of education. In my personal experience as a professor of French, I have verified that short stories, as reading assignments and operating tools, present advantages over other educational tools. They are, in fact, especially useful in three dimension or areas that I consider essential in a holistic education; learning, enjoyment and values. (1) First of all, the use of well-chosen short stories for teaching French has clear didactic advantages over most of the texts commonly found in traditional French manuals. Short stories allow working with authentic texts, written with the real language of native speakers. They enrich the linguistic and cultural level of the students while providing high standard of quality in the target language. (2) Besides this, short stories are more attractive than other texts for their length. We can select them so that they are intriguing, playful, festive and fun. (3) And finally, they offer an absolute variety of subjects, either if they are of popular origin or if they are literary works. Dealing with real life, short stories provide stimulating material for critical thinking and discussion on culture, ethics, values and faith issues.
E- Chemistry and Engineering
E-2 Isolation and Structure Determination of Carcinogenic Arginine-Based Heterocyclic Amines
Ryan T. Hayes, Tyler Pender, J.C. Lynch, Zach Reichert, Andrew Stewart, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
It is well established in scientific literature that cooked meat and fish produce heterocyclic amines (HCA) which are mutagens and/or carcinogens. The formation reaction of HCA typically involves creatine/creatinine from muscle tissue with various amino acids under anhydrous conditions and high temperatures. However, our research and peer-reviewed literature suggests there are a series of HCA compounds that are formed from arginine rather than creatine. Previous work has shown that mutagenic compounds are formed with arginine and various amino acids but no compounds were isolated. Therefore our goal is to isolate and identify the chemical structures of arginine-based HCAs as well as assess their relative mutagenicity. Arginine is found in high amounts in many plants especially soy-based food items. Overcooking proteinaceous plant foods may be carcinogenic and we seek to understand whether or not this is true.
F- Culture and Society
F-1 European Integration and Corporate Interests: winners and losers
Marcella Myers, Department of History and Political Science
The question of globalization and its effect on national governments is an ongoing debate and is marked as one of the culprits leaving national governments at the mercy of international financial markets (Strange 1996). As Martin has observed, it is hard to resist the impression that trans-border economic activity have changed the environment in which welfare states operate, making it impossible for them to perform the distributive functions they performed in the early postwar era (Martin; Huber and Stephens 2001). However, the problem may not be an inability for national governments to act control national budgets and financial markets but a lack of political will. Where there may be little political will, economic interests have proved to be an important impetus for European integration. If this is the case, what are the implications for further political integration and for the democratic participation of EU citizens?
F-2 Choice and Motivation in Indigenous Language Revitalization
Janet Blackwood, Department of English
There has been a considerable amount of research undertaken to explore the motivations for second language learning and the choices speakers make regarding language learning and use. However, this research has seldom extended to examining the motivations influencing language choices in contexts where an indigenous language is in danger of becoming extinct. Using data gathered from a larger study on language attitudes and practices, this presentation examines the language choices of members of a Bribri indigenous community in Costa Rica, the motivations which appear to influence these choices, and the implications of the study findings for current language revitalization efforts in Costa Rica.
F-3 Accidental Path Dependency in the Evolution of Gender Equality in Madagascar
Joel Raveloharimisy, Erenly Agosto, Department of Community and International Development
This paper analyzes the interaction of endogenous and exogenous variables that contributed to the advancing of gender equality in Madagascar since its independence in 1960. We use path dependency approach to analyze different national policy events in relation to gender equality. We found that evolution of gender equality in Madagascar has been accidental. Even though the Malagasy government had intentions to promote gender equality their efforts did not have a significant positive outcome due to competing interest among policy actors and available resources.
F-4 My Cross-Cultural Journey: An Autobiographical Analysis of the Challenges and Negotiations in Entering the World of Unfamiliarity
Ellen Rodrigues, PhD student in Curriculum and Instruction
This autobiographical account describes my personal experience as an international student in the United States, as a way to reflect on the misconceptions, challenges, and adaptations of my school life journey. My overseas experience created conflicted situations while entering the world of unfamiliarity, as well as provided deeper awareness of matters related to identity, culture, and power relations. My theoretical approach will be based on Schumman’s Acculturation Model and Aoki’s curriculum-as-lived perspectives, which will serve as guidelines for the critical analysis of my autobiographical narratives of schooling experiences in higher education. In this trajectory, in each narrative I articulate my cultural, linguistic, and social shock as I perceive my own limitations, the enunciatory spaces of difference, and attempt to understand my new self as a nonnative speaker. Overall, my integration was influence by: (1) the living experience with the social community; (2) the acquisition of self-esteem, confidence, and a positive attitude; (3) the ability to learn to adapt and learn the nuances of the new world; and (4) the deeper sensibility of the teachers.
G- Biology, Mathematics, and Art
G-1 Hot and Bothered I: Climate Change, Cannibalism, and Ovulation Synchrony
James L. Hayward1, Shandelle M. Henson2, and Lynelle M. Weldon2, 1Department of Biology, 2Department of Mathematics
Climate change brings with it a variety of unexpected consequences. El Niño-Southern Oscillation episodes mimic conditions of a warming climate except on a shorter timescale. We found that marine gulls nesting in the Pacific Northwest cannibalize significantly more of their neighbors’ eggs during El Niño events than during other times. El Niño events are associated with higher sea surface temperatures which, in turn, depress marine food webs and reduce the amount of food available to gulls and other marine birds and mammals. Despite the risk of attack from parent birds, an egg cannibal can obtain half its daily energy requirement simply by stealing and eating one of its neighbor’s eggs. Consequently, cannibalism is more common when sea surface temperatures rise. But female gulls seem to have developed a surprising adaptation to reduce the chance that one of their eggs will be cannibalized. This adaptation is the topic of the next talk, “Hot and Bothered II: Climate Change, Cannibalism, and Ovulation Synchrony”, by Shandelle Henson.
G-2 Hot and Bothered II: Climate Change, Cannibalism, and Ovulation Synchrony
Shandelle M. Henson1, James L. Hayward2, Lynelle M. Weldon1, 1Department of Mathematics, 2Department of Biology
In the previous talk, “Hot and Bothered I”, we found that increasing sea surface temperatures (SST) are associated with a lack of food for surface-feeding marine birds, which leads to a higher rate of egg cannibalism in seabird colonies. If more eggs are laid at one time, each egg has a smaller chance of being cannibalized due to “predator satiation”; hence, ovulation synchrony could confer a selective advantage in the presence of egg cannibalism. We demonstrated the existence of ovulation synchrony in two species of colonial birds and formulated the following hypothesis: Rising SST and its concomitant food scarcity selects for cannibalism, which in turn selects for reproductive synchrony.
G-3 Hot and Bothered III: Climate Change, Cannibalism, and Ovulation Synchrony
Lynelle M. Weldon1, James L. Hayward2, and Shandelle M. Henson1, 1Department of Mathematics, 2Department of Biology
The previous two talks discussed the implications of a finding that increased sea surface temperatures are associated with a higher rate of egg cannibalism in seabird colonies. This is very interesting—if it is true. How did we conclude that sea surface temperatures is a relatively important variable in predicting the rate of egg cannibalism? Do gulls learn formulas in order to know how to behave? Why should biologists learn about an information-theoretic approach to data analysis (as opposed to null-hypothesis testing)? We will discuss these questions at an introductory level.
G-4 Vessels for the Kool-Aid Ceremony
Steve Hansen, Department of Visual Art and Design
I will be discussing my latest series of teapots, “Vessels for the Kool-Aid Ceremony”, which have been included in national juried exhibitions such as Hot Tea, and The Teapot Redefined. I will also unpack “Problem Girls” a sculpture that won “Best of Show” at the Michiana Annual Art Competition, and the “ACLU Award” at ArtPrize. The teapot series, “Vessels for the Kool-Aid Ceremony” concerns the Meta stories in our visual culture. These stories are now primarily derived from commercials, advertising, and product tie-ins from movies and television. While a typical person a few hundred years ago could have probably told you the stories of a dozen saints, and been able to identify them, our culture today is far more adept at identifying brands, or pop icons with only partial visual information. This series of work seeks to jar the viewer into seeing some of those images in a new way. I have “branded” my pieces with multiple trademarks, mascots, and logos. These brands form new brands, and create a new narrative for each piece. These works are meant to look like future relics from our age of hyper capitalist visual culture.