Phone: (269) 471-3042
Fax: (269) 471-6246
Office of Research and Creative Scholarship
Administration Building 322, 4150 Administration Dr,
Andrews University
Berrien Springs, MI

Poster Presentations


P-01 An evaluation of electrical conductivity as a practical tool in mastitis detection
Carrie Mesiar1, Jerome Thayer2, Katherine Koudele1, 1Department of Agriculture, 2Center for Statistical Services

Objective: determine the practical use of milk electrical conductivity (EC) change detection technology at the A.U. Dairy in detecting clinical mastitis (CM). An increase in EC > 20% above baseline was a “spike.” If a spike was followed <10 days by an episode of CM then a “true alarm.” If not, then a “false alarm.” A “false negative” was an episode of CM occurring without a preceding spike. Bayes’ Theorem was applied to the probability of spikes and incidence of CM: P(M|S ) = P(S|M) P(M) / P(S|M)P(M) + P(S|NM)P(NM) where P(M|S) is the probability of CM given a spike, P(S|M) is the probability of spike given there was CM (true alarms), P(S|NM) is the probability of spike but no CM (false alarms), P(M) is the probability of a cow having CM in the herd, and P(NM) is the probability of a cow not having mastitis [1- P(M)]. A spike correctly predicted CM in 29.615% of cases but false alarms were 70.385%. Correctly predicted CM was 52.294% but 47.706% of the episodes were unpredicted. Therefore, P(M|S ) = 0.1059%. Conclusion: EC change detection technology was not a reliable predictor of CM for use in the milking parlor to detect CM.

P-02 A Survey of Socio-Economic and Xeriscapic Plants of Jordan as an Educational Tool for Tourism at Tall Hisban, Jordan Archaeological Park
Stanley Beikmann, Department of Agriculture

The 2013 Research Poster will provide a report on the installation of a socio-economic garden and amphitheater at the entry to Tall Hisban Archaeological Park, Jordan. The research and synthesis of xeriscapic and socio-economic plants, that have sustained the Jordanian people for centuries, has been completed. An interpretive garden has been constructed and signed, for the purpose of educating visitors who come to Tall Hisban Archaeological Park. The focus is on their heritage and the heritage of the site through an educational exhibit on sustainable plants and water harvesting methods. The garden also becomes an orientation amphitheater for all visitors who first enter the park. A further study of xeriscapic ornamental plants for potential introduction into the U.S. was also included in our 2013 work.


P-03 Artist working with the Cavan Burren Research Project
Robin Johnson, Rhonda Root, Department of Architecture

This summer documentation of the ancient archeological site in the Cavan Burren commenced. Our purpose was aiding protection of an archeologically significant relic landscape, influencing local ecosystem management policy, and working through details for future Andrews University art and architecture student participation that offers valuable ‘real world’ experience. The Cavan-Burren lies within the Marble Arch Caves Global Geopark, in northwest Ireland along the Fermanagh/ Cavan national border. The lack of industrial development and intensive land-use, partly due to the volatile political history in this part of the world, has left this beautiful and once heavily populated landscape relatively undefiled. Our site was recently deforested through the harvesting of plantation trees, exposing archeological features that had been invisible for decades. The region contains roughly 90% of all geological formations and material types present on the entire planet as well as the sources of the three primary rivers of Ireland. Our primary documentation method involved experimental photogrammetry of representative monument types. Digital photos were stitched into “123D Catch”, from which a digital 3D mesh was created. This process enables virtual manipulation to verify important relationships without disturbing the archeologically significant objects themselves. Objects were also documented using traditional archaeological drawing techniques.

Distance Education

P-04 An investigation of the relationship between student activity patterns and successful course completion in self-paced distance courses
Janine Lim, Department of Digital Learning and Instructional Technology

Student completion is a key indicator of the quality of open and distance learning. This study examined whether student activity patterns in a self-paced course are related to successful completion of the course. Research hypotheses were that there is a relationship between students’ completion and time-based and sequence-based activity patterns. The study included 543 students in 89 different general education courses from January 2011- December 2012. The courses offered came from a range of disciplines, including humanities, math and science. Student dates of registration and assignments submitted were analyzed. The results of this study suggest that some student activity patterns in a self-paced course may be related to their successful completion.


P-05 Following Faith Commitments: How High School Graduates Successful Transition into Adventist Higher Education
Larry D. Burton1, Josephine E. Katenga2, Christine Moniyung2, 1Department of Teaching, Learning, & Curriculum, 2Curriculum & Instruction Ph.D. Candidate

An estimated 66% of Adventist high school graduates who go on to pursue a college degree never enroll in Adventist higher education. This study sought to create a theory to explain and predict how public high school graduates successfully transition into Adventist higher education and persist to degree completion. This study was the second phase of a sequential QUANT-Qual mixed-methods investigation funded by the colleges and universities operating within the North American Division. The resulting theory centers on one key concern shared by study participants – “Following Faith Commitments.” The theory consists of five components articulated across four domains of student experience. The five components of the theory are Attractors, Adjustors, Detractors, Transitional Tasks, and Anchors. These components emerge across the following four domains of student experience: Relationships, Romance, Personal Spiritual Journey, and Mental Maturation. As public high school graduates enter an Adventist university, the Adjustors, Detractors and incongruences they encounter require create the need for students to successful complete Transitional Tasks within each domain of experience. Successful completion of these Transitional Tasks leads to the creation of Anchors which help the student persist to graduation.

P-06 Attitudes towards Adventist Education in Sabah, Malaysia
Jimmy Kijai, Department of Graduate Psychology and Counseling

Relative to membership growth, there has been a steady decline in enrollment in most of the Adventist elementary and both of the secondary schools in Sabah Malaysia. This study was undertaken to examine the attitudes of the Adventist constituent members towards Adventist education. Data was collected using a survey questionnaire between March and October of 2012. The questionnaire was given to all conference workers, school teachers and parents in randomly selected churches. Overall, attitude towards Adventist education is positive, with strong religious/spiritual environment. However, most believe that public schools are better than Adventist schools. Over 50% of the respondents (teachers, pastors and members) reported that Adventist schools should consider receiving direct government funds. Primary reasons for not sending children to Adventist schools are location, cost and quality. Only slightly over two-thirds of the pastors appear to indicate strong support for Adventist education. This study has implication for marketing, branding and promotion of Adventist education in Sabah, Malaysia.

P-07 Characteristics of Adequate and Inadequate Responders in a Fluid Multi-Tier Model
Luana L. Greulich1, Stephanie Al Otaiba2, 1Department of Graduate Psychology and Counseling, 2Department of Teaching & Learning at Southern Methodist University

Despite the widespread use of Response to Intervention (RtI) since the revision of IDEA 2004, there is a paucity of research describing both instruction and intervention within a fluid multi-tiered model. The present study used a mixed methods approach to learn more about differences in initial skills and child characteristics between adequate and inadequate responders during a year-long fluid multi-tier RtI model. Three research questions were asked, the first two questions compared 147 students who received intervention at Tier 2 and 3, but who were adequate responders compared to 23 students who were inadequate responders based upon initial criteria using a Discriminate Function Analysis (DFA). The third question included only the inadequate responders (23) looking in depth and coding their behavior and emotions during intervention. The DFA showed that teacher judgment, initial language, and literacy skills adequately predicated group membership based upon the initial criteria. Adding child characteristics to the initial skills did add a unique variance, but there was very little difference between the two models. The inadequate responders did show specific emotions and behavior during intervention; however it did not yield any specific information that would help teachers and administrators to identify inadequate responders from adequate responders.


P-08 “I Don’t Understand What You’re Saying!”: Lessons from Three Tutoring Sessions between ESL Writers and Native English Speaking Tutors
Julia Kim, Department of English

Writing center staff often expresses their frustrations of falling into the trap of doing what they least desire: editing papers rather than engaging in a collaborative dialogue when working with ESL students. The analyses of three tutoring sessions between native English speaking tutors and ESL students reported in this study tell compelling stories, offering hope, as well as providing clear warning signs that should be attended to. The student’s willingness and confidence in expressing his or her thoughts was a key to a successful tutoring session, and the ESL students’ repeated confirmations through various echoing phrases could actually signal lack of understanding and competence on the students’ part. The study shows ESL students need as much guidance in communicating their needs and should be provided with linguistic tools as well as a nurturing atmosphere where they can freely, not hurriedly, voice their problems, challenges, and confusions.

Social Work

P-09 The Relationship between Volunteering and Church Attendance and Retention among Seventh-day Adventist Faculty and Staff: Preliminary Findings
Curtis J. VanderWaal1, John T. Gavin1, Alissa R. Mayer2, William Ellis3, 1Department of Social Work, 2MSW Candidate, 3Department of Political Science at Washington Adventist University
Presented by Jan Wrenn, Department of Social Work

Volunteering in church and community service projects appears to be a contributing factor in church retention. Research on church attendance suggests that social networks, rather than beliefs, are a primary motivator in volunteering both within and outside of the church (Becker & Dhingra, 2001). Similarly, church attendance may influence volunteering by fostering a sense of community (Beck & Park, 2000). However, the relationship between church retention and volunteering is not well understood, particularly within the SDA church. In 2012, researchers collected survey data from 530 SDA faculty and staff at nine SDA colleges and universities across the U.S. One of the study’s purposes was to explore the relationship between personal religious practices and levels of church and community volunteering. Findings show that 60% of respondents worked on a community project in the past year, with 54% saying they had volunteered for church work monthly or more frequently. Further, as church attendance, prayer and Bible study increased, so too did volunteering. Implications for church attendance and retention will be presented.


P-10 Musical Composition Efficiency Project
Kenneth Logan, Department of Music

From especially May 2011 to present, I have composed, and continue to compose, drafts of many incomplete original musical compositions. This project utilizes the assistance of a student working on such compositions, preparing them for such purposes as performance, publication submission, and self-publication. The student is assisting mostly using Finale notation software, in such functions as expanding “short scores” into full ensemble scoring, and in such tasks as adding dynamics, articulations, slurs, etc. and editing scores for clarity and graphic excellence. Beginning in August 2013, Priscilla Soto (Bachelor of Music in violin performance student) and I have made major progress on five movements of two concertos for organ and orchestra. The Celebration of Research poster will document stages in the genesis of one of these five movements. In addition, we have progressed on two unaccompanied choral compositions (This Little Babe and The Giver Given) on texts by Robert Southwell (c1561-1595); Aspirations for oboe and choir on a text by William Huber, Jr.; and Psalm of Ascents for symphony orchestra.

P-11 In Search of Medieval Irish Chant and Liturgy: A Chronological Overview of the Secondary Literature
Marianne Kordas, Music Library

The study of liturgy and chant in medieval Ireland not only informs our understanding of early insular Christianity, but also illuminates the broader practices of the Church throughout the medieval world. This study provides a historiographical overview of the secondary literature on Irish chant and liturgy from 1881 to 2005.

Visual Art and Design

P-12 Proximity
Kari Friestad, Department of Visual Art and Design

My current work centers on the experience, effects and phenomena of social networking. A progressively common aspect of this feature of modern culture is disconnection from the immediate social environment, facilitated by a total absorption in the ubiquitous online connection. Within a society dominated by a frenzied image-saturated culture, personal identity is now aligned with an online persona. We are defined, debatably in narrow terms, through the vehicle of the online profile, available on a huge range of available networks, gaming pages, work sites, personal websites, dating sites, blogs and more– by our comments, our likes and dislikes, what we eat, who we vote for, how we look, what music we like, what we believe, and our vacations. We manufacture our virtual identity, however deliberately, through images and the increasingly reflexive “status update,” similar to the image crafted by celebrities and public figures. The digital world redefines the rules of boundaries, communication styles, personalities, and personal identity. We acknowledge that “connection” is a good thing. Connection is why we network. With this in mind, my work has two themes: the dichotomy between the potential digital connection and disconnection from people in proximity; and the imagery created by the pursuit of these connections.

P-13 Evidence: A Body of Constructed Images
Marc Ullom, Department of Visual Art and Design

I am interested in how we remember. I am intrigued by the mystery of photographs that hint of an idealized memory or place, or even a dark hidden fragment, a thing barely tangible. So often our memories are flawed and imprecise, just shards of an experience of a place or time. Often they are jumbled and chaotic. Very rarely is a memory so crystalline that we can conjure up all the details, so it is with these qualities in mind that I create my constructed still lifes. This body of work uses representations of the human form and visual cues such as bottles, twigs, seeds, and string to visually reconstruct fragmented memory. My intent is to create images that cause the viewer to pause and ask questions about the elements in the work and to create relationships between the elements that have no singular interconnection, but that allow each viewer to project their experience into the images.


P-14 The Academic Library Partnership with Faculty and Students: The case of James White Library at Andrews University
Silas M. Oliveira, James White Library

Libraries have a long history of collaborating with its immediate community. In the case of academic libraries, this collaboration happens between the library, faculty, and students, mainly. The James White Library at Andrews University is effectively pursuing to narrow and strengthen this collaboration by offering services which will move this effort to a higher level of service - mainly, to become real partners with teachers and students in the learning experience. The objective of the study, therefore was to (1) define the concepts of collaboration, partnership, and the “embedded” librarian, presenting and discussing its differences and how it affects the level of services offered and the image the community of users has about the library, and how this impacts its value and effectiveness. Twenty services offered by the James White Library were analyzed. It was found that a total of 17 followed the collaborative model, 3 the embedded, and none the partnership.

P-15 DIKW Goes To Seminary: Applying the DIKW Hierarchy to the Use of Sources
Terry Dwain Robertson, James White Library

In Information Science studies, the Data/Information/Knowledge/Wisdom (DIKW) hierarchy is a conventional construct for making sense of the terms. However, when applied in any given discipline, the distinctions become challenged and the hierarchy appears to fail. I suggest that the reason for this is the tacit classification of this hierarchy as an ontological narrative. With context appropriate definitions and delimitations, the DIKW hierarchy can still be useful for specific applications in information literacy pedagogy. This is illustrated in the context of theological education by using the construct to differentiate the identification of primary sources in the Seminary disciplines.

P-16 School of Business Administration Publications
School of Business Administration

A collection of research presented/published by faculty of the School of Business Administration.

Biblical Studies and Theology

P-17 Cultural Backgrounds to the Biblical Book of Esther
Constance Gane1, Christie Chadwick2, Erika Mikkelson3, 1Department of Old Testament and Institute of Archaeology, 2PhD student in Archaeology, 3BS student in Speech Pathology and BA Theology

The biblical Hebrew book of Esther closely reflects and interacts with the rich cultural backdrop of the ancient Medo-Persian empire during the reign of Xerxes, against which its drama is played out. The subject areas of investigation that my research is focusing on, but not limited to, include the lives of women in the Persian royal court in terms of their involvement in affairs of state, dynamics of polygamy in relation to social hierarchy, daily routines and quality of life, loci of access in palace architectural geography, and implications of these for understanding moral and ethical issues and behaviors reflected in the book of Esther, such as Esther’s choice to conceal her identity and undergo a high degree of cultural assimilation for survival, her marital (including sexual) relationship with Xerxes, and her harsh treatment of enemies of the Jews. The study interacts with the Hebrew Massoretic text, the Septuagint, as well as a wealth of extrabiblical data illuminating the diverse cultures of the empire during this historical period, including fairly recent archaeological discoveries that shed light on the lifestyles and societies of royals, nobles, military and civil servants, and commoners.

P-18 Not One Man: The Leadership Controversy of the 1870s
Kevin M. Burton, MA student in Theology

In the early 1870s, the Adventist church struggled in regard to leadership. In late 1873, General Conference President, George I. Butler, attempted to bring resolution to these issues by writing a tract upon the subject. When Butler presented his Leadership on November 15, it was unanimously accepted as the official Seventh-day Adventist position on leadership. Within one year, major issues regarding the philosophy of Butler’s Leadership began to unfold. In fact, by November 1874, leadership had “exploded.” As a result, many attempts were made to bring about harmony and reestablish peace within the ranks of Sabbath-keepers. After about four years of struggle, the controversy was finally resolved and certain aspects of Butler’s Leadership were rescinded. This poster will provide a brief overview of the leadership controversy that waged throughout the 1870s within the SDA Church. It will highlight the three primary views of leadership that arose at this time, and illustrate the major events that took place in a concise manner.

P-19 The Beyond Beliefs Study: Early Baptism
Paul B. Petersen1, Jan A. Sigvartsen2, Leanne M. Sigvartsen3, 1Department of Religion and Biblical Languages, 2PhD student in Old Testament, 3PhD student in Theology at Avondale College

There has been a strong emphasis in the Seventh-day Adventist Church in North America to baptize young people prior to reaching high school as it is believed this practice may be associated with membership retention within the Seventh-day Adventist Church. However, it is unknown how these young people, upon reaching early adulthood, feel about early baptism and if they have a comprehensive knowledge of the 28 Beliefs of Adventism. The Beyond Beliefs study Cohorts 1, 2 and 3 identified that there may be an unforeseen consequence of early baptism in that young adults possess a limited knowledge of the official 28 Beliefs of Adventism and factors other than personal conviction contribute to their decision to be baptized prior to age 14. A number of participants expressed negative feelings relating to the practice of early baptism and 62.5% of those baptized prior to age 14 expressed that if could they do it again, they would have waited until they were older to be baptized. Paternalism and the potential implementation of an alternative practice for children, tweens, and early teens, other than baptism, are discussed. The Beyond Beliefs study is an ongoing study and this issue will be investigated further in Cohorts 4 and 5 which are scheduled for Spring 2014.

P-20 The Beyond Beliefs Study, Cohort 1: An investigation into the knowledge and attitudes Young Adults have of the 28 Beliefs of Adventism
Paul B. Petersen1, Jan A. Sigvartsen2, Leanne M. Sigvartsen3, 1Department of Religion and Biblical Languages, 2PhD student in Old Testament, 3PhD student in Theology at Avondale College

At present, it is relatively unknown how young adults who identify as Seventh-day Adventists really feel about each of the official 28 Beliefs of Adventism. The first cohort of the Beyond Beliefs Study asked a sample of young adults who were undertaking RELT225 Doctrines of Adventist Faith to write a 150 word response to each of the 28 Beliefs of Adventism. From these responses researchers identified what aspects of these beliefs resonate (both positively and negatively) with this demographic group. Two demographic inventories were also administered. These instruments also identified a number of sociocultural and religious attitudinal perspectives and the knowledge levels of the 28 Beliefs. Preliminary findings suggest that young adults from the North American Division predominantly like the 28 Beliefs, particularly those that provided either a real or abstract benefit for them personally or had a relevant application for their life here and now. Thus, the challenge for the Seventh-day Adventist Church in North America, when addressing young adults, is not primarily to convince them of the strengths of the 28 Beliefs of Adventism, but rather, to demonstrate how each belief benefits them and can be applied in their lives right now. Additional cohorts for the Beyond Beliefs study will be added in the Fall 2013 and Spring 2014 semesters.


P-21 Hunger in paradise? Seasonal variation in plant availability to manatees in the flooding wetlands of Tabasco, Mexico
Daniel Gonzalez-Socoloske, Department of Biology

Understanding foraging ecology is an important element of effective conservation strategies. While it has been suggested that some populations of Antillean manatees inhabiting freshwater systems experience seasonal availability to food, no study has examined it quantitatively. In this study, plant species richness, diversity, and abundance were examined monthly in four contact lakes in the wetlands of Tabasco Mexico from August 2010-July 2011. A total of 415 plots were surveyed, in which 72 plant species were identified representing 63 genera and 45 families. Only one submerged species was found. Water levels fluctuated more than 6 m, and based on the water levels the following seasons were determined: high water (September-October), receding water (November-February), low water (March-June), and rising water (July-August). Plant species richness, diversity, and abundance were greatest during the rising water season and lowest during the low water season. No plants were available in April-June, which represented the majority of the low water season. Species richness, diversity and abundance were significantly affected by month and positively associated with water levels. The availability of the different plant growth forms was also significantly influenced by season. Despite the relatively high plant species richness and abundance found in the habitat, on any given month manatees in Tabasco had access to only 0-39 species and an average of 14. In addition, they had very restricted or no access to plants during the low water season, which suggests they were forced to fast. This may have important implications for rehabilitation and relocation efforts of stranded and orphaned manatees. If reintroduction efforts are to succeed, the variability of plant species and abundances demonstrated by this study should be taken into consideration when feeding captive animals that are going to be released back into the wild.

P-22 Phonotaxis in Male House Crickets, Acheta domesticus
David Mbungu, Erik Thordarson, Department of Biology

Calls of male crickets convey both reproductive and territorial intentions of the caller. Reproductively mature conspecific females use these calls to judge the quality of the caller and walk toward the source of the call (positive phonotaxis). Males of a few cricket groups also exhibit positive phonotaxis though for different proximate reasons than those hypothesized for females. We placed male house crickets, Acheta domesticus, in a circular arena and presented them with electronically synthesized model calls that differed from each other only in syllable periods. Seven syllable periods that ranged from 30msec to 90msec were used in this setup. Our Results revealed that male responses to calls with a syllable period of 50 msec had an earlier commencement and were more consistent than those of any other syllable period. However, age led to a progressive change in male responses and eventually resulted in those that were more than a month old responding to different syllable periods indiscriminately. The tuning of male and female auditory systems to calls of similar temporal structure indicates a common underlying genetic basis.

P-23 High-resolution Record of Temporal Variation in δ13C from Intra-Tooth Sampling of Incisor Enamel of Free-ranging Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrels
J. Andrew Brassington1, Alexandra E. Chacko1, Woo Jong Jang1,2, Brooke Kisser3, Benjamin H. Passey4, and H. Thomas Goodwin5, 1BS student in Biology, 2School of Medicine at Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, 3Biology Department at Everett Community College, Everett, WA, 4Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 5Department of Biology

We tested the hypothesis that d13C profiles of incisor enamel from free-ranging thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) record seasonality in diet. We used laser ablation to densely sample lower incisor enamel (on average, one sample per 3 days of tooth growth) from 20 squirrels collected in SW Michigan, and analyzed samples using GC-IRMS. The basal ~20-35 increments of record always displayed a negative trend in d13C, probably reflecting contamination by organic carbon in developing enamel; we excluded these values. At one colony, squirrels collected within 25 m of a cornfield displayed significantly higher and more variable d13C (variable C4-rich diet; mean=-5.03, SD=2.38, n=6) than did squirrels from mowed lawn distant from the cornfield (C3-rich diet; mean=-13.92, SD=0.61, n=6); this pattern persisted from early May-late August and was confirmed to reflect dietary differences (d13C of fecal pellets). Both groups displayed a positive excursion in d13C in late August. Late-season use of C4-rich vegetation was also documented at a second colony (n=8) without access to a cornfield, studied in late summer through hibernation. Isotope values peaked rapidly from mid-August to mid-September, and subsequently dropped precipitously to hibernation. We suggest rodent incisors as possible recorders of fine-scale seasonal variation of interest to paleoecologists.

P-24 Changes in the selectivity of phonotaxis and its neuronal correlates in response to prothoracic nanoinjection of modulators in female cricket Acheta domesticus
Benjamin Navia, Ashley Groeneweg1, Gordon Atkins, John Stout, Department of Biology, 1MS student in Biology

Phonotaxis in female crickets exhibits variability. While some females respond to calling songs typical of the males’ (syllable periods, 50–70 ms), others only respond to calling songs with shorter or longer syllable periods, outside the range of males’ calling songs. Other females lack selectivity and respond to the full range of calling songs. Nanoinjection of histamine into the prothoracic ganglion decreases phonotactic selectivity. Nanoinjection of antihistamine has the reverse effect. Nanoinjection of Juvenile Hormone III increases phonotactic selectivity, while nanoinjection of chelethrine chloride blocks the effect of Juvenile Hormone III. This suggests that Juvenile Hormone III exerts its effects through a protein kinase C pathway. The effect of Latrunculin on selective females is currently being tested. Preliminary data suggest Latrunculin reduces the effect of Juvenile Hormone III. The L3 prothoracic interneuron in female crickets responds selectively to the syllable period of the male’s calling song and it has been proposed to be responsible for syllable period-selective responses during phonotaxis. If this is true, then L3s should show variable responses that parallel the phonotactic behavior. Preliminary findings show L3’s selective responses decrease as a result of histamine applications. Sequential application of Juvenile hormone III and PKC-inhibitor also decrease L3’s selectivity and supports the hypothesis that processing by L3 contributes to the syllable period selective phonotaxis observed in this species.

P-25 Male exposure reduces the response of female crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) to the male’s calling song: The roles of two auditory neurons
John Stout1, Leslie Samuel2, Steven Lee3, 1Department of Biology, 2Department of Physical Therapy, 3BS student in Biology

We have evaluated female phonotaxis (walk toward males’ calls) using virgin and male-exposed (raised in the same container) females. While nearly 100% of virgin females respond phonotactically, about 40% of male-exposed females do not respond to models of the males’ calling songs (CSs) and those that respond (60%) exhibit quantitative differences in their responses. In virgin females, the AN2 neuron receives excitatory stimulation from the cricket’s ear and responds selectively to model CSs that represent the CSs of calling males. This selective response is very significantly correlated with the same female’s behavioral response to that call. In many male-exposed females, the AN2 neuron does not respond selectively to the CSs that represent calling males. This difference is the result of inhibitory input from the ON1 auditory neuron that in many male-exposed females, “destroys” AN2’s selective response to models of a calling male’s calling song. AN2s in virgin females that are “forced” to respond to model CSs similarly to the AN2 responses in male-exposed females are highly correlated with the failure of the virgin female to respond phonotactically to that CS.

P-26 Incorporating case studies into an undergraduate genetics course
Marlene Murray, Department of Biology

Genetics is considered one of the most challenging courses in the biology curricula at both the secondary and post secondary levels. Case based teaching has been shown to improve student perception and performance outcomes in both non-science and science courses. Thus in an effort to improve outcomes, case studies were integrated into an undergraduate genetics course as a supplement to lecture and replacement to recitation. Student perception and performance when case studies were used was compared to two previous years before the incorporation of case studies. Student course evaluations, pre and post surveys of student knowledge, and exam scores indicated that when case studies were used student perception improved while student performance showed mixed results.

P-27 Subcellular distribution of carboxypeptidase O affected by nutrient availability
Peter J. Lyons1, Donnel Dockery2, 1Department of Biology, 2BS student in Biology

Carboxypeptidase O (CPO) is a member of the M14 family of proteolytic enzymes. Many members of this family of enzymes are secreted from cells and are involved in degradation of extracellular peptides; other carboxypeptidases remain within the secretory pathway of the cell where they are involved in the maturation of bioactive peptides. In order to determine the function of CPO, the subcellular localization of CPO was determined by immunofluorescence analysis. CPO, stably expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, was found in a punctate pattern partially associated with lipid droplets. When cells were serum-starved the structures associated with CPO became more numerous and often clustered. Addition of oleic acid to the medium caused CPO to be redistributed in a diffuse pattern with some concentration on the nuclear envelope. Western blot analysis of CPO following oleate incubation indicated an increase in the amount of a CPO isoform with lower mobility as seen by SDS-PAGE, suggestive of a post-translational modification. These changes in CPO size and distribution, dependent on nutrient availability, suggest a possible role for CPO in autophagy-related processes.

P-28 The effects of low-control, high-predictability stress on spatial memory: preliminary data in a new animal model
Moriah L. Jacobson1, Rebecca Clouse2, Mikyung Kim2, Bob Carney1, Diane Kim1, Pamela S. Coburn-Litvak3, Brenda J. Anderson1, 1Psychology and Integrative Neuroscience, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 2MS students in Biology, 3Department of Biology

Humans can experience feelings of stress even in the absence of real danger, simply by believing that there could be danger, or by anticipating what will happen in the future. This is termed “psychological” stress. We used a recently developed animal model of psychological stress to explore the roles of the stressor’s control and predictability in influencing performance in a spatial memory task (Barnes Maze). Previous studies using this model showed that rats exposed to a high-control, low predictability form of psychological stress showed memory deficits compared to controls when testing was done under normal conditions. The spatial memory deficits were specifically related to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Therefore the memory impairment may have indicated a possible shift from the methodical, reflective control of the prefrontal cortex to more rapid, reflexive actions associated with the amygdala and other subcortical brain areas. We hypothesized that this neural shift could lead to improved spatial memory performance if the same memory task was performed under aversive conditions. Consistent with our hypothesis, the current experiment indicates that high-control, low predictability stress resulted in improved spatial memory compared to controls when the animals tested under aversive conditions.

P-29 Expression and characterization of ECM14, a putative metallocarboxypeptidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Matthew James Schott1, Peter J. Lyons, 1MS student in Biology, Department of Biology

Metallocarboxypeptidases are found in most organisms and function in the digestion and maturation of proteins. ECM14 is a putative metallocarboxypeptidase found in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and localized to the vacuole. There are a number of amino acids in the putative active site of ECM14 that suggest a catalytic mechanism different from the typical carboxypeptidase. In order to investigate the enzymatic mechanism of ECM14, the protein was histidine-tagged and over-expressed in S. cerevisiae. Western blotting of protein extracts resulted in a 40 kDa histidine-tagged protein, intermediate between the predicted sizes of the proenzyme (50 kDa) and the mature enzyme (35 kDa). Proteinase A, the endopeptidase predicted to be responsible for maturation of ECM14, was co-expressed with ECM14, but resulted in no change in ECM14 size, suggesting that the mature form may already be present. Overexpressed ECM14 protein was insoluble. To obtain soluble protein, ECM14 expression was induced at low temperature, for varying lengths of time, and at lower inducer concentrations. No change in solubility of ECM14 was observed under any of these conditions. Further experiments to obtain soluble protein will make use of an insect cell expression system and refolding from a denatured state.


P-30 Isoxazolines and Thiolactones: Two Types of Heterocyclic Compounds to Investigate for Synthetic and Antibacterial Purposes
Lisa Ahlberg, Josh Szynkowski1, Lucyna Krzywon2, Rosanne Thornhill1, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 1BS student in Biochemistry, 2BS student in Biology

Development of highly antibiotic resistant strains of infections such as staphylococcus and tuberculosis warrant the search for new antibacterial chemotherapies. With vanishing antibiotic therapies available for such infections and with little pharmaceutical company input into such problems, it is critical for many researchers to investigate novel therapies against these bacterial threats. The projects that we are working on involve the synthesis of isoxazoline and thiolactone compounds, which have shown potential for antibacterial activity. These heterocycles have interesting activity against numerous organisms that could prove useful, especially as we vary the substituents on the heterocycle to look for increases and decreases in activity against certain organisms. We have begun making compounds with the general isoxazoline moiety and a compound similar to Thiolactomycin. We are interested in the 1,3-dipolar addition reaction with questions to probe that reaction that include: What effect will changes in the substituents have on the resulting regiochemistry of the product? Can we control the regiochemistry? And can we build another antibiotic?

P-31 Simple LIBS spectrometer for Instrumental Analysis and General Chemistry
David W. Randall, Ryan T. Hayes, Peter A. Wong, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

A LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) spectrometer constructed by the instructor is reported for use in undergraduate analytical chemistry experiments. The modular spectrometer described here is based on commonly available components including a commercial Nd:YAG laser and a compact UV-Vis spectrometer. The modular approach provides a flexible arrangement that allows the use of the components in other experimental techniques, such as Raman spectroscopy and measurement of lifetimes of excited states. Integrating LIBS into the undergraduate analytical chemistry curriculum gives students experience with this important, emerging analytical method as well as hands-on experience with this common type of laser. Finally, experiments in which the LIBS spectrometer is used in both upper- and lower-division chemistry courses as well as a use for forensic chemistry are outlined.

P-33 Comparison of the tissue staining of CA19-9 versus sialic acids (using Avian and Human Haemagglutinin (HA)) within microtissue array samples
Katie Partyka, David Nowack, Brian Haab, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

The early detection of cancer is the primary determinant of increasing the 5-year survivability of the patient following its diagnosis. Pancreatic cancer has the lowest 5-year survivability of all common cancers. Developing early detection methods for that disease is crucial to increasing its survival rate. Changes in glycoprotein structures in the blood and serum have been detected that correlate strongly with cancer prognosis, specifically, the concentration of the carbohydrate moiety known as CA19-9. Cancer victims with high levels of CA19-9 glycoproteins circulating in their system are known to have significantly shorter prognosis. Using lectins that bind to CA19-9 and HA which binds to α 2-3 sialic acid bonds and α 2-6 sialic acid bonds in microarray tissue slides, the resulting trends in binding gave disappointing results and lowered the confidence that HA can be used as an early detection marker.


P-34 Transition to Proof and Beyond: What’s Needed for Success?
Robert C. Moore1, Milos Savic2, Melissa Mills3, 1Department of Mathematics, 2Department of Mathematics, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 3Department of Mathematics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK

This study explores mathematicians’ views on 1) transition-to-proof courses and the 2) knowledge and skills students need in order to succeed in subsequent mathematics courses. We interviewed seven mathematicians from three U.S. universities. They agreed unanimously that a content course could be used as a transition-to-proof course under certain conditions, and they agreed on a number of topics that should be included in such courses. The mathematicians said the knowledge and skills needed for success in advanced mathematics courses include precision in thought and writing, ability to make sense of abstract concepts and use them flexibly, understanding of the nature of definitions and how to use them, ability to read and validate proofs, and skill in using proof techniques. Results from this study will be used to frame a larger study investigating students’ proof processes in their subsequent mathematics content courses and investigating how these skills can be incorporated into a transition-to-proof course.

P-35 Coexistence State of Multiple Species of Animals Residing in an Environment
Joon H. Kang, Department of Mathematics

Two species of animals are competing in the same environment. Under what conditions do they coexist peacefully? Or under what conditions is either one of the two species become extinct, that is, either one of the two species excluded by the other? It is natural to say that they can coexist peacefully if their reproduction rates and self-limitation rates are relatively larger than those of competition rates. In other words, they can survive if they interacts strongly among themselves and weakly with others. We investigate this phenomena in the mathematical point of view by modeling of a system of Partial Differential Equations.

P-36 An inequality on Riemannian submersion invariant and theta-slant isometric immersion
Yun Myung Oh, Department of Mathematics

It has been known that if a Riemannian manifold admits a non-trivial Riemannian submersion with totally geodesic fibers, then it cannot be isometrically immersed in any Riemannian manifold of non-positive sectional curvature as a minimal submanifold. B.Y. Chen proved this using an inequality involving the submersion invariant and his inequality shows the upper bound of the invariant Ăπ if a manifold is Lagrangian submanifold. Recently, the lower bound was found and furthermore, another inequality can be derived if we consider a θ-slant submanifold in complex space forms.


P-37 Preparing for Advanced LIGO
Tiffany Summerscales, Department of Physics

The Initial LIGO detectors have completed their search for gravitational waves and are currently undergoing major upgrades. While no gravitational waves were measured during the initial era, the instruments were sensitive enough to make significant astronomical discoveries. Once the upgrades are complete, Advanced LIGO will begin taking data in 2015. The eventual factor of 10 improvement in sensitivity will guarantee gravitational wave detections provided that General Relativity and astrophysical models are correct. The Andrews University LIGO group has been developing a gravitational waveform recovery method. We will be working on updating and improving this analysis to ready it for the Advanced LIGO era.

Engineering and Computer Science

P-38 Automatic summarization of clinical abstracts for evidence-based medicine
Rodney L. Summerscales1, Shlomo Argamon2, Nandhi Prabhu Mohan3, Shangda Bai3, Jordan Hupert4 and Alan Schwartz5, 1Department of Engineering and Computer Science, 2Department of Computer Science, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, 3MS student in Computer Science, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, 4Department of Pediatrics, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 5Department of Pediatrics and Department of Medical Education, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL

A central concern in Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is how to convey research results effectively to practitioners. One important idea is to summarize results by key summary statistics that describe the effectiveness (or lack thereof) of a given intervention, specifically the absolute risk reduction (ARR) and number needed to treat (NNT). Manual summarization is slow and expensive, thus, with the exponential growth of the biomedical research literature, automated solutions are needed. We have developed a novel machine learning-based software system that generates EBM-oriented summaries from research abstracts of randomized controlled trials. The system has learned to identify descriptions of the treatment groups and outcomes, as well as various associated quantities. It distills these elements into summaries that include summary statistics calculated from the reported outcome values found in the text.

P-39 CaM and OMP interaction monitored by the QCM-D sensor
Hyun J. Kwon, Department of Engineering and Computer Science

Olfactory marker protein (OMP, 19kDa) is a ubiquitous, cytoplasmic protein found in mature olfactory receptor neurons of all vertebrates. Calmodulin (CaM, 17kDa) is a ubiquitous Ca2+ sensor and has a wide range of binding partners in the olfactory sensory cascade. Although CaM has been studied extensively, however, OMP’s role in olfactory neuron has been enigmatic. We tested CaM (or OMP) and various peptides in the olfactory cascade to identify its roles using the QCM-D sensor and NMR. We proved that OMP and CaM shares the same binding motif to many proteins in the olfactory sensory transduction. Moreover, OMP and CaM were observed to bind to one another in the pull-down assay and QCM-D sensor. The results suggest that OMP is deeply related to regulating CaM’s function in the olfactory sensory transduction.


P-40 Theory to Practice: A Native-American Experience for BSN Senior Students
Gisele Kuhn, Department of Nursing

For two consecutive years, Senior Nursing students in a BSN program were enrolled in a new nursing mission service class where they were taught about transcultural nursing service and were led by nursing faculty to a Native-American Reservation in Montana where they provided nursing service to 1,000 Native-American children. This pioneer nursing service encouraged students to improve sensitivity, cultural awareness, competence, confidence, learning and leadership skills, teamwork, time management, and health assessment skills. This qualitative study used an evaluation survey, journaling, and observations. The study had a small sample size in the first class (N=13) and a larger sample size in the second class (N=30). Senior nursing students had improved satisfaction in their learning service activities and improved their cultural sensitivity and self-confidence, which enabled them to improve critical thinking and nursing competence. The implications for nursing educational practices is that involvement in a mission service class in a Native-American reservation will students and faculty to use their nursing knowledge and skills, using principles of transcultural nursing, enabling them to improve critical thinking.

P-41 Music Relaxation Video and Biophysical measurements: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Grace Chi1, Dennis Cheek2, 1Department of Nursing, 2Harris College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX

Stress is a concern of college students as they are encountered with a variety of academic, financial, and social pressures. Psychosocial stress is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, which is partially related to stress-induced endothelial dysfunction. “Endothelial dysfunction” has been associated not only with hypertension or atherosclerosis, but also with physiological and pathophysiological processes including aging, smoking and stress. It was found that music might stimulate the β-endorphin to activate endothelium-derived nitric oxide in vessel dilation. Music might induce positive emotions and beneficially influence vascular health. Increasing the awareness of the impacts of stress-induced anxiety on endothelium related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases may make a difference in the lives of college students.

Physical Therapy

P-42 The effect of hippotherapy on hypertonicity and function as measured by the HAT scale (Hypertonia Assessment Tool) Modified Ashworth scale and TUG (Timed Up and Go) test.
E. Oakley, T. Jardine, N. Wier, T. Homnick, C. Swain, Department of Physical Therapy

Purpose: Hypertonia is an increase in the normal resting tone of the muscles resulting in rigidity and spasticity of the involved muscles making functional tasks such as walking, dressing, and activities of daily living, difficult to accomplish. Hippotherapy is the use of a horse to help with treatment goals and is used to treat hypertonia. There is currently not enough measurable evidence of it’s effectiveness. Research demonstrating the effectiveness of hippotherapy would establish this treatment as a viable option for the treatment of hypertonia and provide needed evidence for potential funding and resources for hippotherapy centers and its clients. The purpose of this study is to determine if hippotherapy is an effective treatment method for decreasing tone and improving gait speed in children and adolescents with hypertonia. Subjects: Thirty male or female adolescents between the ages of 4-19 years will be selected through purposive sampling. Methods: For each subject, a trained hippotherapy physical therapist will perform a baseline assessment to determine the presence of hypertonia utilizing the HAT scale. The Modified Ashworth scale will be used to quantify the degree of hypertonia present and the TUG test will be used to assess gait speed. The subject will then receive a 15-35 minute hippotherapy treatment and a post-assessment of the dependent variables will be done at 2-week intervals over an 8-week period.

P-44 Incidence and Impact of Urinary Incontinence and Health Related Quality of Life for Postpartum Bangladeshi Women: Comparison by Birth Mode
L. Walton, S. J. M. Ambia, A. Begum, C. Buddy, Department of Physical Therapy

Purpose: To investigate the incidence of urinary incontinence (UI) and relationship between UI and health related quality of life (HRQOL) of postpartum Bangladeshi women. Problem Statement: There are no studies comparing HRQOL with incidence and impact of UI amongst Bangladeshi women who have had cesarean section (CS) and those with normal vaginal delivery (NVD). Methods: Prospective, cross-sectional, correlational design (n=86) of postpartum Bangladeshi women, ages 18-44, with history of one or more obstetrical deliveries within the last three years. This study was implemented at the Center for Rehabilitation of the Paralyzed (CRP) in Bangladesh. Subjects completed the Bengali version of the SF-36, IIQ-7, and Health Questionnaire.


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