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In this chapter I take the position that learning a direct instruction method is similar to a cross-cultural experience. My observations are shaped by having recently lived six years in a different culture; therefore, I have used a cultural perspective to interpret my initial findings. This was not something I had planned before the observations began, but rather an impression that grew throughout the training and the analysis of the data from the training. Consider this scenario:
A traditional teacher walks into an ECRI classroom. The room is buzzing with activity. Students are giving timed spelling tests to one another, reading out loud, saying the main idea and writing their spelling words. It seems that everyone is doing something different even reading different stories orally. In the midst of this chaos the teacher flits from one student to another giving mastery tests. The timer goes off and everyone is back in their desks. Within seconds the teacher is reviewing vocabulary words. The students clap and read in unison. Then comes new vocabulary presented on cards with particular attention given to word formation. The students spell, read, make sentences, write, and correct on command. The traditional teacher stands open-mouthed, she has never seen anything like this before.
Mansell (1981) believes that "learning to live in a different culture necessitates the construal of new definitions, meanings, and explanations of everyday affairs and the negotiations of an alternative order of assumptions about reality, routineness, and rationality" (p. 96). The traditional teacher is confronted with a situation creating conflict. Her/his beliefs about teaching are challenged. A form of `culture shock' sets in when there are surprises and large contrasts. As the teachers in my study observed the ECRI method in operation those first few days of training, they were astonished. As the training continued, they experienced enthusiasm, then disintegration, forms of hostility, and finally adjustment. In subsequent sections we will look at these phenomena as parts of the process of enculturation. This chapter focuses on the three-week training session, and the results are interpreted largely from a cross-cultural perspective.
The training was intensive lasting from June 18 - July 9. Teachers were involved in class activities for approximately seven hours a day, Monday through Thursday, and four hours on Friday. The training involved children who were present all morning each day. The afternoons were spent in demonstrations, lecture, question-and- answer sessions, and preparation time for the next day.
The training took place in an elementary school close to Midwest University. Initially, three adjoining classrooms which opened into one another via expandable walls were used. These provided easy access and freedom of movement for the teachers as they moved about watching three trainers demonstrate the use of ECRI methods. In each classroom, six to ten children were being taught, extra desks had been pushed to the sides and chairs were available for the teachers. At any point in time, three to ten teachers observed the trainers as they taught using the ECRI method.
The first day, June 18, was spent in teaching the children the general behaviors required for the ECRI program. Teachers who were registered for EDTE436 and EDTE492 could observe while Miss Sabrina Woods went through the modeling, prompting, and practice directives for each of the main components of the ECRI program. The next two mornings, June 19 and June 20, the teachers, 25 in number, were free to observe the three trainers; Dr. Eugene Haskell, Miss Sabrina Woods, and Miss Clarissa Long as they taught the basic components: skills, back-up, practice time, reading enrichment and writing, to approximately 30 children.
In the afternoon the children were not present and time was spent with the trainers. This was a time for lecture, demonstrations, and organizational activities. Many teachers stayed later than 5 p.m. as they worked together preparing materials and planning for teaching.
On the fourth day, June 21, the teachers were expected to begin practicing all they had observed. Because of the large number of teachers (25 initially registered), five groups were established with five teachers in each group. The original three rooms were used plus two rooms across the hall. The previous day the teachers had organized themselves so that each one was responsible for one of the five components: skills, back-up skills, practice time, reading enrichment, and writing. This established a pattern which operated throughout the training session. By rotating the schedule, all teachers had opportunity to practice each component two or three times.
The Training Components
Dr. Eugene Haskell fashioned the course requirements for EDTE436 (Elementary Language Arts Methods) and EDTE492 (Teaching Developmental Reading) around the Joyce-Showers training model. Joyce and Showers found high levels of implementation of innovations associated with five components: theory, demonstration, practice, feedback, and coaching (Joyce & Showers, 1988).
Using material presented in the syllabus, teachers were exposed to a model for direct instruction. They were taught to teach skills by modeling, prompting, and practicing. The rationale for a direct instruction model was presented through a study of approximately 20 pages of research studies found in Teacher Training Textbook: Teaching Scheduling and Record Keeping by Ethna Reid. The teachers were required to read these pages and write an examination on the content.
For three full mornings at the beginning of training, the teachers observed the trainers teaching children to read, using the ECRI method. The teachers were able to observe a variety of minor adaptations as the trainers taught students at different reading levels. As the teachers moved from room to room, they observed the trainers teaching for 100% student response and 100% mastery of word lists. They noticed the wide use of positive reinforcement, and it was obvious that the trainers ignored incorrect responses while reinforcing the desired behavior.
Following the initial three days of demonstration, the teachers were further exposed to demonstrations by the trainers during the afternoon sessions. On these occasions, children were not present. For the demonstration of back-up skills to two groups simultaneously, all children and teachers met in one classroom while Miss Sabrina Woods modeled the essential behavior.
Each morning throughout the remainder of the training (approximately 2 1/2 weeks), teachers observed their colleagues as they modeled the use of ECRI methodologies.
It would be difficult to estimate the total time spent practicing after the teachers began teaching the children on June 21. The actual practice time spent teaching one or two components each day to real students was minuscule in comparison to the hours spent practicing on colleagues. Practice was integral to the training program and teachers were thrown into it almost immediately. In spite of some initial resistance, teachers came to appreciate the collegiality and feedback which these various practice sessions provided. One teacher said:
I have learned that in order to learn something (a strategy), much practice is a must. Therefore I think that most of the other methods classes in our school would improve by having this kind of approach. Not only the theory, but lots of practice should be included in the Education Teacher Training Curriculum. (V. 1, p. 180)
As teachers practiced the various skills, informal feedback was provided by the trainers as well as the other teachers. It was a common occurrence to see teachers practicing in pairs during the afternoon sessions. Often one teacher would be practicing the skills section for presentation the following morning while another teacher would be coaching and prompting as needed. The necessity for helping one another can be appreciated when one realizes the numbers of directives which teachers were required to learn. (Directives are separate verbal instructions in sequence and are memorized word for word.) The directives for the skills component numbered over 30 and well over 50 directives are needed to teach penmanship. Other directives needed to teach spelling, dictation, literal comprehension, inferences, and creative comprehension were all memorized.
Formal feedback was provided by the trainers following their evaluation of the teachers presenting the skills component to the children (part of the course requirements). The written evaluation was then discussed with the teacher. This time of coaching was often personal, technical, and usually appreciated. The trainers also listened to the recitation of directives by individual teachers. These were marked off a check-list of course requirements and it was impossible to pass the course without learning all the directives.
"The coaching of teaching occurs in the workplace following initial training," declare Joyce and Showers (1988, p. 69). The extent to which this occurred in this research was later assessed using the typology of working conditions developed by Szabo (1989). (see p. 63, 196).
In summary, it is clear that all components of the Joyce-Showers training model were operative throughout this instruction.
Those teachers with experience teaching reading generally came to the training with a background of experience using the basal reading series adopted by their organization. When asked why they taught reading the way they did, they responded:
Basically because I was trained the way I do with some personal innovations of my own through study and reading. I like to try new ideas. (V. 1, p. 192)
I have found that there have been some excellent results. The children are learning to read, spell, and write. (V. 1, p. 90)
I know of no other way. (V. 1, p. 100)
The teachers came with a sense of openness to new methods since many were not satisfied with their present methods. They wanted to increase achievement, help slower students, and in general, find a more efficient way to teach reading. When asked what their expectations were for the course, they replied:
I want to learn techniques that will help me structure a different and effective way of teaching my students. (V. 1, p. 145)
I hope to learn how to teach reading, English, and spelling in a systematic, thorough but exciting way. My students are bored right now. (V. 1, p. 69)
Enthusiastic First Reactions
The overwhelming euphoria which I noticed the first few days was a phenomenon which even the trainers commented on. All the teachers were excited and intrigued when they saw children responding to the trainers. The teachers were pleased with the participation; the speed with which new words were introduced; the high levels of concentration of even the smallest children; the coordination of reading, writing, spelling, and vocabulary; and the idea of mastery learning. For many teachers it was their first exposure to direct instruction. Their comments indicate their excitement:
I'm excited about it at last a program designed primarily to teach and not to grade or label! (V. 1, p. 81)
I am extremely impressed with the program. I would like to train other teachers to use this program. (V. 1, p. 19)
I like it. I believe it would work beautifully in a classroom situation. (V. 1, p. 32)
I'm really pleased. It answers questions I had and struggles about the curriculum I was currently using. (V. 1, p. 59)
One of the trainers said she "could not believe the
positive feelings at the beginning. So many were saying they
intended to use ECRI in their own classrooms. . . . I could not
believe their enthusiasm after listening and watching for a few
days" (V. 1, p. 219).
As a participant observer, this immediate reaction was not something I had anticipated. In my pilot study, the teacher had initially expressed a lot of hostility. Being acquainted with Hall's Stages of Concern I knew that his first two stages, "awareness" and "informational" do not generally portray such positive attitudes. I had recently used an adapted article by Hoopes (1972) with a group of international students to whom I taught reading. I remembered the stages and began to wonder if the learning of a direct instruction reading approach could be compared with a cross-cultural experience. At the time I was taking a curriculum course which required the use of Hall's Stages of Concern and upon expressing my observations to the professor, I was directed to Witman (1962). Pursuing the idea of stages in a cross-cultural experience, I discovered several other authors (Adler, 1975; Mansell, 1981) who identified steps involved in a cultural change. These are summarized in Table 4. Adler (1975), Hoopes (1972), and Witman (1962) give as their first stage that of "enthusiastic acceptance or fascination and curiosity" in a cross-cultural experience. This was definitely what I observed.
Following quickly on the heels of enamourment was disillusionment and disintegration. All four authors (Adler, 1975; Hoopes, 1972; Mansell, 1981; Witman, 1962) discuss a stage where some form of hostility, doubts, alienation, or disintegration reveals itself. This reaction is precipitated by the onslaught of new ideas different from previously held beliefs.
Throughout the three-week training, the teachers were bombarded with new concepts. Some new ideas they identified were positive reinforcement, multisensory approaches, mastery, repetition, and direct instruction of comprehension, penmanship, and vocabulary:
I noticed Sabrina really reinforced good behavior and just ignored the bad behavior. I've never seen anything like this. It was not the way I was taught. (V. 1, p. 1)
I did not know how to teach main idea. I've been ruining kids for 16 years. (V. 1, p. 129)
The multisensory approach helps to make sure students who do not learn well with the auditory way learn it the kinesthetic way, etc. I know that for me I could not learn with only the sight method. I'm one who needs to hear and touch to learn effectively. (V. 1, p. 119)
All children can score 100% accuracy, in the proper setting. No child appears threatened. They work in a neat orderly environment. The children themselves expect to score high. (V. 1, p. 35)
Children learn through repetition. These children have learned to recognize sounds. They even appear to enjoy the repetition. They know what to expect. (V. 1, p. 35)
While many teachers were enthusiastically accepting new ideas,
they were in no way prepared for the very real change in attitude
which occurred about the third day. On that day teachers were
informed that they would begin teaching the students using the
ECRI method the next day. Teachers became very concerned about
the demands of the innovation and their adequacy in relationship
to those demands. They said to the trainers, "We need more
time, we've just been introduced to this innovation". They
went home and began to learn the directives. Some had nightmares,
some had stomach aches all experienced rather high levels of
anxiety. Their attitude had very quickly changed to "resentment
and criticism," a stage unique to Witman (1962) and "hostility"
which Hoopes (1972) describes.
These may be identified as "personal" concerns in Hall's scheme, but something is lost of the nature of these concerns which is readily retained and identified in Witman (1962) and Hoopes (1972). Teachers began to grumble and complain. The writing on the overheads was too small, surely students would have high levels of eye-strain. The teachers were tired of teaching, why should they have to continue teaching when they had come to take a nice easy course to get their certification requirements. It was unfair of the trainers to expect them to teach. And to have to supervise the children and clean the rooms, this was REALLY asking a lot! Criticism was bordering on anger over confusion of which directives to learn. Some that were printed in the syllabus were different from the ones in the textbook. During this time of high "resentment and criticism," three teachers chose to drop the class. While they were outwardly saying they liked the methodology and intended to try to use it, they were making many asides about the training and were generally unhappy with the expectations placed upon them. Critical of the trainers because they had received misinformation and had arrived two days late, their frustration and anxiety spilled over to other teachers and when they did leave, it was easier for the others to accept what was happening.
Sproull, Kiesler, and Zubrow (1984), in commenting on adjusting to an alien culture, suggest that confusion sets in soon after the realization that the new situation is quite different. The "confusion about self leads the novice to feel overwhelmed and to question aspects of his or her self-identity or self-image"
The teachers were able to express a number of personal concerns during the time of the training. These quotations demonstrate the fragile self concepts present at this time:
I am so self conscious what other people think of me matters to me. I think I did the word skills better this time than last time. (V. 1, p. 5)
Knowing people are watching, timing, and judging my performance does not make me comfortable. (V. 1, p. 43)
I dislike the insecurity I am feeling. (V. 1, p. 71)
After seeing Sabrina teach two classes of spelling, I do not
think I can do this. I do not think my brain works fast enough.
Wow! That was something! (V. 1, p. 75)
Being a fairly religious group of teachers, it's not surprising to find them turning their thoughts to God as a source of comfort and strength:
I prayed a lot that God would take away my fears doing skills for the first time. I kept thinking about Psalms 34:4 and Philippians 4:13. (She later brought computer printouts of these texts and put them up on the board with the schedules). (V. 1, p. 72)
My devotional life is becoming quite deep. I now pray earnestly and without ceasing beats any religion class I ever had! (V. 1, p. 103)
I am memorizing texts (which I have not done before) and two of my friends are too! (V. 1, p. 116)
The disintegration which Adler (1975) identifies is elucidated
best by the wide range of physical manifestations which teachers
experienced. One expressed slight discomfort:
I'm like a circle. It's like a square trying to be fit in a circle. It does not flow for me it's not smooth, there's conflict. (V. 1, p. 120)
Many teachers revealed feelings of nervousness, forgetting, dry mouths, shaking, nauseousness, headaches, and knots in their stomachs. But the descriptions of dreams best captures the disequilibrium felt by teachers:
Last night I woke up and someone was screaming `spell and read'. The dog was barking. I jumped out of bed and it was all quiet. You have no idea how vivid this was to me. (V. 1, p. 112)
The nightmares I am having are of words I should teach but do not know. I would say the anxiety is equal to my first day teaching. (V. 1, p. 71)
I dreamt about the directives. I was saying the most `off the wall' things. (V. 1, p. 49)
I had nightmares again trying to think how I would fade the directives and how the kids would respond. I also had nightmares thinking about my supervisor and board and how I would help them to know what I was doing. (V. 1, p. 76)
In an effort to bring some level of continuity out of this state of confusion and frustration, we find the teachers trying to interpret what this new situation means to them. As in a cross-cultural experience, they need to have control of their lives and must endeavor to gain control by trying to make sense of the new situation. A theme running through the data showed how various teachers attempted to define this new strategy.
Teachers tried to develop an explanation of how ECRI related to them and often their concerns were expressed in the form of questions:
I'm wondering how they expect us to use this all day or what? and do we get vocabulary from social studies and science? (V. 1, p. 1)
If I get too many reading or grade levels in my school, will I still be able to use it? (V. 1, p. 60)
What to do if a child cannot adjust to this system? (V. 1, p. 62)
Using this method can we reach the criteria of the state? How do we implement this in a multigrade school? I'll have 8 levels of reading. (V. 1, p. 79)
Could it be taught to 4th grade? Will the kids get tired of basically the exact same routine every day? (V. 1, p. 163)
With each question, the teachers were saying, "I'm trying to figure out how I'll be able to use ECRI." It was a good indication that recovery and reintegration were beginning.
In the need to reintegrate the self with new values and beliefs there is a tendency for what Mansell (1981) calls "adaptive resilience." Berman and McLaughlin (1977) found that adapting a new strategy was one of the imperatives to implementation.
A number of teachers were clearly in the business of making adaptations to the program from the very beginning. They "would not introduce so many words at a time," or they "would change the directives." Some would require the spelling words be written rather than spelled orally. Others had ideas of how to give the points that would be more effective than "running to the students' desks." One teacher rearranged the room so the overhead was placed on a higher table. This represented a fairly major adaptation considering that this took place in Sabrina's room. Others planned some form of assessment because it seemed "some words are so easy the children might be able to read them and spell them without the need of going through all the routine."
In contrast to those making adaptations were many typified by this comment:
As to how I would use what I've learned in class. . . well, I'd do exactly what the book suggests and have a successful year! (V. 1, p. 121)
Many teachers recognized that they would have to make adjustments as far as their way of teaching, but these were in agreement with the overall ideas presented in the training sessions. Adjustments indicate that the teacher understands the ECRI program and the demands it makes on her/him.
I'll have to return books such as handwriting and spelling books. Purchase materials: overhead paper, spelling strips appropriate penmanship paper and chart boards. (V. 1, p. 18)
I am becoming more tolerant and receptive to the ECRI method and am formulating plans in my mind for implementing it in my classroom. (V. 1, p. 41)
Probably I will need to use a split schedule as I doubt I'll have time for the whole schedule each day. (V. 1, p. 56)
Doyle and Ponder (1977-78) point out another factor which influences change. This factor, the practicality ethic, was also a rather predominant theme throughout the summer training session. The idea is that teachers attempt to implement a change if they perceive it as being "practical" something which matches their idea of what should happen in the classroom. A number of these links are found in the following statements:
I have (previously) tried to teach the ability to separate root words from suffixes and prefixes and understand meanings of the parts. (V. 1, p. 1)
I like the idea of combining all the reading/language arts instruction so the students are being taught in a unified and consistent manner. I have never liked the idea of using so many workbooks. (V. 1, p. 43)
The ECRI method will work for me because I believe in it. I'm disgusted with the old way. I want a method that will bring up the children's achievement levels and less grading for me and something that challenges the kids and has them mastering the words for 100%. (V. 1, p. 65)
I have not been introduced to any strikingly new concepts, because this is the principle I used in teaching riding [horseback] for 20 years, i.e., teach the basics to mastery and encourage the student to look for self-improvement, not external comparison. (V. 1, p. 83)
I have always been branded as a slave-driver, pushing my students to the limits of achievement. I think Dr. Reid, through research, shows this to be better than a laid-back approach. (V. 1, p. 139)
As the training continued, a sense of ownership of the new ideas became a dominant motif. Teachers were now saying, "These new concepts are a part of me." In answer to the question, "Are you aware of any changes you are experiencing in your beliefs or attitudes?" they responded:
Yes! Reading groups seated around me are not necessary regardless of how good I am. (V. 1, p. 129)
I'm beginning to see the advantage of ignoring the activists and rewarding those who are working their little tails off and staying on task. My tendency heretofore has been to supply that negative attention which was sought. (V. 1, p. 104)
Yes! Copying or modeling does work! (V. 1, p. 112)
I'm the principal of my school and I've been teaching grade one. I did not really worry as long as kids were passing and they were quiet. They never did well on the criterion tests, especially the vocabulary but I always just thought there was nothing I could do. These kids come from underprivileged homes and the parents do not use the words so I did not think I could teach them but now I know I can. (V. 1, p. 130)
Yes, many! I am learning how new words may be taught where the coefficient of efficiency is high, for the effort made by the teacher. (V. 1, p. 137)
Yes, my attitude towards teaching with directives has changed. I see the benefit and efficiency of the method better. (V. 1, p. 178)
Yes, I believe we as teachers expect the student to do the
learning, but we do not do an effective job of instructing. Using
this method of instruction guarantees learning. (V. 1, p. 27)
These responses were different from some initial reactions to the same question when teachers responded, "It's too soon in a new experience to tell" or "Not yet, I am too shell shocked" (V. 1, p. 201).
The attempts to bring control to the new situation requires the participant to learn new skills. This is necessary if the individual is to function in his new role. To be an ECRI teacher, one has to be able to learn many directives and be able to use them in discussions, spelling, skills time, and when teaching comprehension. Some of the tensions involved in learning a new skill are suggested by the comments below:
It is hard to really learn positive reinforcement. (V. 1, p. 8)
I feel I have learned the skills needed to implement the ECRI program. (V. 1, p. 87)
I did all my words in skills in under 5 minutes each. I feel really good about that. (V. 1, p. 111)
Adler (1975), Mansell (1981), Hoopes (1972), and Witman (1962) identify stages where recovery and adjustment or some type of acculturation and autonomy are evidenced. During the three-week training, this process began when adaptations and adjustments were being made. Also, as new beliefs and skills were developed, the individual was gaining control of certain aspects of the ECRI method in preparation for functioning independently.
The plans which teachers began to make show that some level of acculturation had arrived. The teachers were beginning to see themselves operating in the new role.
I plan to use the next four days to start to get my materials ready. I'll make two folders, get comprehension paragraphs made up and copied. Also, all the word cards, mastery tests, word formation and word discrimination exercises and then get everything properly filed. (V. 1, p. 64)
I'll have 5 grade levels but I'll have 2 reading groups. I would not have to order the workbooks. (V. 1, p. 61)
Walking out with all of Sabrina's file folders. I am so excited. I'm going to a friend's where I can copy all this stuff, overheads and everything. I know this will work for me. (V. 1, p. 64)
I'm planning to implement. I will only have one group. I'll
teach ECRI in the afternoon when the kindergartners are gone -
could not do it in the morning when the kids are there. (V. 1,
I will force students to think faster and to aim for 100% accuracy and not just be content with making a C. (V. 1, p. 133)
Stages of Concern
Hall's Stages of Concern inventory was administered two times during the training, the first time about half way through the training and the second time on the last day. The group results are given in Figure 2. The profile taken halfway through training shows the typical results of nonusers. "Nonusers concerns are normally highest on Stages 0, 1, and 2, and lowest on Stages 4, 5, and 6" (Hall, George, & Rutherford, 1986, p. 36). The profile taken the last day of class reveals some interesting concerns. Looking at Figure 2, we note high informational (1) concerns along with high collaboration (5) concerns. The high collaboration concerns demand an interpretation! Hall et al. (1986) suggest that a high 5 and a high 1 means "that there are concerns about looking for ideas from others reflecting more a desire to learn from what others know and are doing, rather than concern for collaboration" (p. 54). Interpreting these results through a cultural perspective reveals some interesting insights. Mansell (1981) and Hoopes (1972) discuss times when the newcomer wants to band together with others from his own country. From a cultural perspective, high stage 5 concerns indicated on Figure 2 could be explained as a need to have the uncertainties and lack of continuity of beliefs resolved through the support provided by people of one's own culture in this case, other teachers.
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0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 = Awareness 4 = Consequence
1 = Informational 5 = Collaboration
2 = Personal 6 = Refocusing
3 = Management
= Group concerns halfway through training
-- = Group concerns last day of training
Figure 2. Stages of concern about the innovation.
During the training I noticed the way the teachers were attracted
to Sabrina. Of the three trainers, she represented the teachers
most closely. She was a practicing teacher and had used the ECRI
method in her classroom for a full year. At any point in time,
she was surrounded by teachers who needed to test their ideas
against someone like them. As Sproull, Kiesler, and Zubrow (1984)
Everyone feels confused at times. In ordinary circumstances this confusion is alleviated by observing what other people do, or by comparing one's behavior to standards embodied in the environment. In an alien culture, however, clear comparative information is lacking. When in addition to this conceptual ambiguity there is an absence of emotional buffering mechanisms (such as enclaves set aside for novices), then people experience a loss of control. Reality shock and confusion lead novices to try to reestablish control. These attempts can entail mental activity alone, e.g., constructing satisfying interpretations of the confusing events. And they can also entail actions such as increased effort or talking with other people about the situation. In either case, aspects of the culture play a part in the control attempts. They provide sources of information for constructing interpretations and people who function as comparators or standards against which the novices can judge their behavior. (pp. 34 & 35)
The cultural interpretation of the results from Stages of
Concern makes a lot of sense. At the end of the training, teachers
were aware that they were going back to their schools where hardly
any support of any kind existed and the need for collaboration
was intensified by this realization.
Mansell (1981) suggests that the final stage of cross-cultural adjustment occurs when the individual can function equally well in both cultures. She labels this stage "duality." More time was needed than just the three-week training to demonstrate the extent to which the teachers adjusted to this new way of teaching. The results of the process of change as experienced back in their own classrooms is the focus of four case studies in the next chapter.
In this chapter, I have shown that the learning of a direct instruction reading approach can be likened to a cross-cultural experience. During the three-week training, teachers moved from very positive first reactions to a state of disillusionment triggered largely by the onslaught of new ideas which challenged beliefs and practices. In a state of disequilibrium, teachers revealed various concerns with self, physical manifestations, and numerous uncertainties about ECRI. However, as they connected the new information with their prior knowledge, reintegration was evidenced. Teachers began to make adaptations and adjustments to their program, incorporating new beliefs and skills. At the close of the summer session, a number had seemingly assimilated the concepts of ECRI to the degree where they made tangible plans to implement ECRI in September 1990. The case studies in chapter 5 reveal the intricacies of the implementation process.