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Table of Contents

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The terms "collection development" or "collection building" describe a library's acquisitions program involving purchase of information materials in a variety of formats: print, microform, audio, video, electronic. The key words here are "acquisition" and "purchase" because they imply ownership of resources. Acquisition has been an adequate term to describe the information gathering role from the earliest libraries of clay and papyrus to the great research libraries of our time.

But a paradigm shift has taken place. In the face of the late twentieth century knowledge explosion it is no longer possible for a library to physically acquire the diversity of resources which its patrons require. However, new information technologies have opened gateways to remote information sites, creating a kind of global marketplace of information. Libraries will continue to acquire and own information resources; they will continue to build and develop collections. But those activities are becoming recognized as one part of a broader program of information resources development, which includes planning and managing access to remote electronic databases. It also includes cooperative resource sharing arrangements with other libraries.

Information resources development at James White Library during the next decade will involve some new opportunities and challenges:

The shift towards electronic access at James White Library underscores the need to create resources development policies that reflect the unique program requirements of the various academic areas. Policies must provide for collection evaluation and weeding as well as ongoing assessment of the library's particular "mix" of owned and accessed resources. Meanwhile, the continued growth of traditional formats will have some space-planning implications.

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The notion that we face a future of libraries without books is just about as fanciful as the prediction that librarians are about to be replaced by computer chips. The facts are that libraries, librarians, books and chips will all be part of our cultural scene for quite a long time.

Serious writers do, however, predict some changes in the way that human resources will be allocated in the near-future library environment. Two long-term trends are worth noting here:

These trends will affect the employment pattern at James White Library in the years ahead. Meanwhile, though, there are some special elements bearing on the way human resources are likely to be allocated in the immediate future:

On a department-by-department basis, staffing needs during the next three years are likely to be as follows:

Department of Technical Services:

One additional full-time cataloger is required to handle Adventist Heritage Center materials, which by their nature require original cataloging and special treatment.

Additional assistance is also required to complete the Retroconversion project as quickly as possible.

During the next three years, we should study the feasibility of contracting some technical services to utilities which provide such services. This could result in a reduction of staff in the technical services area.

Department of Information Services:

Within two years there will be need for an additional librarian to support a projected increased demand for reference work, especially in library instruction. Much depends upon the library's future involvement in information technologies.

The effect of greater database access has meant an increase in interlibrary loan requests. The longer term effect is less certain as the library moves inevitably toward full-text electronic access for periodical articles.

Department of Patron Services:

An increase in circulation load may be an argument for installing self-service circulation terminals rather than increasing staff.

Extended library hours will add to staffing needs.

Department of Special Collections:

This department includes the two branch libraries as well as the Media Center. The closure of one or both branch libraries would result in reduced staffing levels.

Adventist Heritage Center:

This department is understaffed for carrying out the kinds of outreach and promotional activities which should be part of its work load.

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A detailed Library Space Needs Assessment is being undertaken, and the resulting document will form part of a James White Library Building Program.

Though much has been written on how libraries will develop in the 21st century, there is no documented body of knowledge dealing with the implications for building design. There is no blueprint for the library of the future.

Two assumptions can, however, be made with some confidence. First, the library of the future will require a revolutionary approach to space and design. The library building for the 21st century must be designed around the patron rather than the collection.1 The orientation will be service rather than storage. The design must provide for excellent instructional facilities. There may actually be a reduced need for traditional patron seating, since the networking of indexes and databases enables the user to do in the office, home, or residence hall what traditionally had to be done within the walls of the library. In its place there will be an expanding need for a range of group use and instructional facilities.

The second assumption about the future is that libraries will continue to purchase and house print materials in a variety of familiar formats. Book publishing is still experiencing a growth curve, albeit a much flatter one than we saw during the print explosion of the 1960's and 1970's. The old demands for vastly more stack space are being ameliorated by new emphases on collection evaluation and weeding, and by trends toward new forms of compact storage and off-site housing of low-use materials.

Focusing on the particular situation of James White Library, we note several needs in relation to space.

The need for a complete building renovation.

The existing building, constructed in 1962 with a major addition in 1977, has provided excellent facilities during a period of rapid library expansion. Several interior changes and renovations have been made during the past thirty years, on a piecemeal basis, to cope with functional reorganization and changing emphases. The result in 1994 is a structure in urgent need of interior re-design and re-decoration within a total plan or concept compatible with the requirements and expectations of an academic library at the threshold of the 21st century.

Several specific needs must be addressed in a renovated building:

Specific Space Needs

There are several specific needs for allocation of additional library space:

Some Short Term Needs

The organization of a new Technical Services Department requires that the existing periodicals processing area on the Lower Floor be moved to an enlarged technical processing area on the Main Floor as a matter of urgency. Target date: summer of 1995.

Priority must also be given to some expansion for the Adventist Heritage Center, as the first stage of greater development. Target date: 1996.

The use of compact shelving on the Lower Floor for most or all of the periodicals collection is a realistic and economic proposition. This installation would result in a fifty percent saving of space for periodical storage, and allow the library to postpone building expansion until 1999/2000. Target date: summer of 1996.

Weeding of the existing Lower Floor periodicals collection by a minimum of 5.0% will result in removal of approximately 4,500 volumes. Target date: summer of 1996.

Removal of the religion periodical collection from the Main Floor to the Lower Floor would provide space on Main Floor for expansion of the book collection. Target date: summer of 1996.

Growth of the book collection will not exceed 7,000 volumes per year for the next six years. This total includes growth of both the Architecture and Music branch collections.

Weeding of the existing book collection by a minimum of 4.0% will result in removal of approximately 20,000 volumes. Target date: 1998.

The Media Center will undergo a degree of metamorphosis and develop at least in part into a multi-media laboratory/instruction area. Target date: 1997.

Questions for Study

These questions are relevant to the space needs of James White Library in the immediate future, and must be addressed urgently.

Towards 2000

Two conclusions emerge from this discussion. First, it is clear that the Andrews University master-plan must incorporate an expansion of the James White Library -- it is not a question of if, but when. Appendix F contains statistics on the existing stack capacity of the building, and a projection based on current rates of growth.

Second, there are some urgent needs which must be met by 1996. These needs include: re-location of periodicals offices, some expansion of Adventist Heritage Center, and installation of compact shelving for periodicals.

On the longer planning range, several needs must be met by the year 2000:

It is highly desirable that a comprehensive plan for the future James White Library building should be in place as soon as possible, so that the short-term urgent needs may be carried out in harmony with the long-term design. This will avoid short-term renovation solutions that would have to be torn out later. It is therefore proposed that a library consultant be retained as soon as possible to work with the library staff in preparing a building program. The program should focus on a major building expansion in 1999/2000, while providing direction for interior renovations needed in the short term.

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1 Henshaw, Rod. The Library as Place. College and Research Libraries, 55 (4), July 1994, p.283-285

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The preceding sections of this plan have explored the changes driving academic libraries, and how James White Library plans to respond in terms of goals. The shifting scenario has financial implications which need to be addressed.

Personnel / Resources

Comment has already been made on the relationship in spending between personnel and library resources. The respected Association of College and Research Libraries Standards1 recommend that between 35% and 45% of the library's budget should be spent on materials, between 50% and 60% on personnel, and up to 10% for operating expenses. Recent budgets for James White Library have provided between 36% and 40% for materials, between 54% and 57% for personnel, and approximately 7% for operating expenses. In a setting where salary and wage levels are below the national average for academic libraries, and where there is unusually heavy dependence on low-cost student labor, one should expect expenditure on materials to be greater in relation to personnel costs. On the other hand, one must recognize that branch libraries (such as the Architecture Resource Center and the Music Materials Center) and special collections (such as the Adventist Heritage Center and The Media Center) add to personnel costs, especially in a relatively small institution. Another short-term factor of note is the library's cataloging retroconversion project which is labor-intensive.

The relationship between spending on resources (both "owned" and "accessed") and personnel should be monitored carefully and continuously, with a view to maintaining a strong budget commitment to information resources. Spending on resources should not be sacrificed quickly in times of budget restraint.

Professional Development Opportunities

To be a successful academic librarian in this time of rapid change is to keep abreast of developments and trends in the broad field of information access, storage and use. It is imperative that our librarians be encouraged to attend and participate in conferences, workshops and seminars on a regular basis. This will require an increase in budget support for this purpose.

Ownership / Access

The traditional concept of resources as print or "hard" items acquired and owned by the library is being replaced by the idea that resources may be either owned or accessed. Movement in the direction of increasing reliance on access, as opposed to ownership, is being encouraged by escalating costs of certain kinds of print materials (especially periodicals and indexes) and by increasing availability of materials in full-text electronic format.

The 1994/95 year will see the first, relatively modest, shift in James White Library budget expenditures from purchase of resources to electronic access. This must be seen as a trend which will no doubt escalate in the future. It is a conscious shift of philosophy from a "just-in-case" to a "just-in-time" scenario, and will expand dramatically the universe of documentary information which our patrons may have at their fingertips.

Investment in Technology

Access to the world of information does not come without cost, and one can foresee that financial support for expanding and maintaining information technology will translate into a significant part of the annual budget in future years. The university has made a significant investment in electronic technology for James White Library. Protecting this investment means not only providing funds for replacement and upgrading of equipment, but for the growth and expansion of the Innopac system. Specific provision needs to be made in each annual budget for:

gold bullet Innopac enhancements
gold bullet Addition and replacement of electronic equipment (computers, terminals, etc.)
gold bullet New multi-media technologies in support of education and classroom instruction
Expenditure on electronic technologies should be viewed as a sound investment by the university in the future of Adventist education. The beneficiaries of the investment are not only students and faculty on the Andrews campus, but students and faculty in extension programs, affiliated institutions, and ultimately individuals in every part of the world where there is access to modern communications technology. In other words, it is a global investment.

Building Renovation/Expansion

Separate from the annually recurring budgetary needs is the need to provide for renovation and expansion of the existing library building. This requires a special capital fund-raising campaign, which is coordinated through the university's Office of Development.

Other Sources of Funds

Conditions of financial restraint motivate James White Library to explore sources of supplementary funding, not for operations or even for library resources, but for special needs and projects. The library has not been aggressive in the past in seeking public and private grants, but plans to do more of this in the future.

One of the goals of this strategic plan is establishment of a "Friends of James White Library" organization. Such groups have been highly successful in hundreds of academic settings in supporting library needs and funding special projects. Given the international influence of Andrews University and the significance of James White Library in the Adventist information network, we are well suited to the concept of a Friends group.


Such a committee should have representation from academic administration, teaching faculty, library and computing center.

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1 Standards for College Libraries. Revised. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries, 1986.

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Experience reveals that detailed time-lines extending beyond two years are generally unrealistic. They usually require major revision before implementation, reflecting a scenario in which change is rampant and often unpredictable. Flexibility and adaptability will be essential characteristics of a strategic plan in this period of shifting paradigms.

For this reason we must regard the James White Library strategic plan as dynamic and evolving rather than static and fixed. Success in its implementation will require an annual review and updating which may involve modification of goals, revision of strategies, and in-course corrections.

Following is a projected program for the next few years.


April 1995

Launching of the JWL Strategic Plan.
Establishment of study groups/committees to report by 30 May, 1995:

May 1995
Completion of a library space assessment study. Appointment of a consultant to work with library staff in preparing a James White Library Building Program.


July 1995

Add one full-time librarian for the Cataloging Unit in Technical Services (budget permitting).

Summer 1995

Renovation of Technical Services area to incorporate space for periodicals processing.

Fall 1995

Completion of Building Program document.
Develop and submit a grant proposal for a pilot "Information Arcade"-type project.
Commence periodicals weeding project, to be completed by June 1996.

Spring 1996

Review of Strategic Plan by Strategic Planning Committee.


Summer 1996

Target date for installation of compact shelving on Lower Floor, and housing of all periodicals on one floor.
Target date for first stage of expansion for Adventist Heritage Center.

Fall 1996

Launch plans for a Friends of James White Library.

Spring 1997

Annual review of Strategic Plan by Strategic Planning Committee.


Target year for completion of building expansion.

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Revised November 16, 1995