Andrews University

Department of Teaching, Learning, & Curriculum

EDCI756   Advanced Studies: Area

1-3 credits


Fall Semester 2004/Spring Semester 2005




Professor:      Select from: Burton, Davidson, Jones, Hollingsead, Ostrander, Siebold


Class Time:    Arranged


Class Location:  Arranged





Course Description

Advanced studies of the knowledge base of a given area of study, which includes a comprehensive search of the literature



Undergraduate major or minor in the discipline, graduate work in a specific discipline, or permission of the instructor



School of Education Conceptual Framework

The School of Education’s conceptual framework, “To Educate is to Redeem,” identifies six elements that describe the important learning outcomes for all programs in the unit.  We believe that the following shared learning outcomes, organized by our conceptual framework elements, are essential in preparing educators and other school personnel who can fulfill the redemptive mission expressed in our conceptual framework.  In addition to these 6 shared elements, the Curriculum & Instruction faculty has identified outcomes unique to that program.  For your convenience, the entire Curriculum & Instruction Conceptual Framework is listed below (SED Shared Elements in parentheses). 


Element I:  Reflective Thinker (Worldview) 

This element addresses appreciation of the perspectives of others and development of a personal philosophy from which action and service arise.  Graduates will be able to . . .

I.A     Explain worldviews and trace their historical development

I.B     Critique worldviews from a Christian perspective

I.C     Integrate principles of a Christian worldview into their chosen fields of study


Element II:  Learning Theorist (Human Growth and Change)

This element addresses principles of growth, development, and learning and the use of these principles to effect positive change.  Graduates will be able to . . .

II.A    Describe human development

II.B    Apply current theories of learning


Element III:  Servant Leader (Groups, Leadership, and Change)

This element addresses principles of group behavior and the use of these principles to effect positive change for individuals and organizations.  Graduates will be able to . . .

III.A   Facilitate change in groups and organizations

III.B   Relate effectively with various cultural, racial, and special interest groups

III.C   Identify political and legal issues

III.D   Manage human, financial, and material resources

III.E   Demonstrate servant leadership


Element IV:  Effective Communicator (Communication and Technology)

This element addresses oral, written, intrapersonal, and interpersonal communication as the essence of human behavior and technology as it enables, supports, and enhances human interaction and learning.  Graduates will be able to . . .

IV.A   Communicate effectively in written, verbal, and non-verbal forms

IV.B   Use electronic tools effectively for professional communication, teaching, and research

Element V:  Scholar/Researcher (Research and Evaluation)

This element addresses valuing and conducting disciplined inquiry for decision-making.  Graduates will be able to . . .

V.A   Read and evaluate research

V.B   Conduct research

V.C   Report research findings


Element VI:  Lifelong Learner (Personal and Professional Growth)

This element addresses commitment to holistic, personal, and professional growth.  Graduates will be able to . . .

VI.A   Demonstrate continuing professional development

VI.B   Demonstrate ethical behavior in all professional activities

VI.C   Demonstrate balanced physical, mental, spiritual, and social development


Element VII:     Subject Area Knowledge (Initial Teacher Preparation Program Only)


Element VIII:    Program Designer

This element addresses professional knowledge and skills in the area of curriculum and educational program development.  Graduates will be able to . . .

VIII.A    Understand and discuss curriculum literature appropriate to the candidate’s degree level

            VIII.B    Understand and apply curriculum development processes within a systems perspective

            VIII.C    Create professional-quality curriculum documents


Element IX:      Teacher/Mentor

This element addresses professional knowledge and skills in the area of instruction and instructional leadership.  Graduates will be able to . . .

            IX.A      Understand and use frameworks for organizing instruction

            IX.B      Demonstrate a repertoire of effective teaching strategies for teaching ALL students

            IX.C      Use effective staff development models to help effect change in learning organizations

Element X:       Assessor/Evaluator

This element addresses professional knowledge and skills in the area of assessment and evaluation.  Graduates will be able to . . .

            X.A       Understand and create curriculum-based assessments that are closely aligned to curriculum documents, including standards and curriculum guides

            X.B       Use assessment and/or program evaluation to provide formative assessment and create plans for improvement in a continuous quality improvement model


These nine areas contain the knowledge, practices, skills, attitudes, and dispositions we consider vital to the development of caring, committed, competent educators. This course addresses the elements of the conceptual framework within the context of your focus area. References to these knowledge bases are found in the statement of course goals. The references will help you see where this course fits into your personal growth in these nine areas.


Course Outcomes

The student will

1.                  Develop an in-depth understanding of the literature in the focus area

2.                  Identify needed acquisitions for the Andrews University James White Library in the focus area

3.                  Synthesize the research literature in the focus area

4.                  Clearly communicate personal understanding of the focus area


Course Assignments

1.      Conduct electronic and paper-based searches for literature relevant to the focus area

2.      Read extensive literature in the focus area

3.      Generate a list of essential works in the focus area that are not currently part of the James White Library collection

4.      Write a paper synthesizing your findings in the literature

5.      Present this paper at a TLC Mini-conference



How Advanced Studies “Fits” with other C&I doctoral studies:


Initial.  One of the first broad approaches to study in your area(s) of interest was the one-credit course Current trends and Issues (EDCI689).  The purpose of this course was a basic familiarization with the process of library search and presentation of your incipient ideas on a topic of interest.


Focused.   EDCI756, goes much deeper as you assemble a sizable body of literature in your sub-areas of interest, discuss this literature with colleagues, and determine from your study which possible topics warrant your attention in terms of dissertation research.


Topic.  Having done extensive reading in your sub-areas, you should identify a possible topic upon which to focus for the dissertation.  You may not know your exact title but you should have a definable topic in mind and be able to justify it on the basis of your readings in EDCI756.


Theoretic framework.   A theoretic framework goes far beyond  a collection of literature or research studies on a topic.  After you have read widely, it is time for synthesis and making connections in novel ways.  In EDCI730 you examine the inductive process of theory development that relates your literature review and your philosophical underpinnings to a framework that shows your distinctive contribution to the world of scholarship.   Incidentally, the idea of original contribution to the knowledge base is one defining characteristic of PhD study.


Research.   Courses in research methodology and doctoral seminar provide tools for investigating your areas of interest.  Your research methodologies should relate to your topic of interest both for the dissertation and for later research as a professional scholar.  This advanced methodology (EDCI885) asks you to actually carry out a research study (possibly in collaboration with a faculty member) in a way that gives you actual research experience prior to the dissertation.  This study may be a pilot for your dissertation.


Dissertation.  The dissertation (EDCI899) is the culmination of your academic work, but hopefully only the beginning of a life of search and (re) search for truth.   The dissertation process is described in the doctoral students’ handbook. 


Grading Scale:

S          = Target or Competent rating on evaluation rubric

U          =Needs improvement rating on evaluation rubric


Special Needs Accommodations

If because of a disability, you require assistance or reasonable accommodations to complete assigned work, speak with me after class or during my office hours.  I will work with you on making this course, class activities, and exercises accessible for your full involvement. Support services for students with disabilities are available through Student Services or Karen Tilstra, (471-6205) Student Success Advisor.


Academic Honesty

Morally and spiritually, Andrews University is dedicated to scholastic integrity.  Consequently, both students and faculty are required to maintain high, ethical Christian levels of honesty.  You are encouraged to support the atmosphere of academic integrity by avoiding acts of academic dishonest and discouraging such acts in others.  Participation in any of the following activities will qualify the student for disciplinary action as specified in the Student Bulletin.


Cheating: Using or attempting to use unauthorized materials, information, or study aids to gain an unfair grade advantage over other students in any academic exercise.


Plagiarism: Representing another's words or ideas as one's own in any academic exercise.


Multiple Submissions: Submitting the same assignment in two or more courses without obtaining the prior permission of the respective instructors.


Fabrication: Falsifying or inventing information or citations in an academic exercise.



Further Note

All students in this course are expected to read and be familiar with this syllabus. The syllabus has been prepared to assist you in understanding the scope of this course along with the type of instruction. Care has been taken in preparing this syllabus and it has been purposefully worded openly. However there may be times when the syllabus will need to be changed as necessary and appropriate. Any changes will be announced in class as far in advance as practicable.




Organized by Conceptual Framework Element


Element 1:  Reflective Thinker

Under construction

Element 2: Learning Theorist

Outcome #1:  Describing human development



Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory.  New Jersey:  Englewood Cliffs.


Bee, H. L. and Bjorkland, B. R. (        ).  The journey of adulthood.  4th ed.  New Jersey: Prentice Hall.


Bee & Boyd. (2003). Lifespan and Development.  3rd  ed.  Allyn & Bacon.


Berger, K. S. (1998).  Developing person (Life Span).  New York:  Worth.


Briggs, L. Ed. (1977). Instructional design: principles and applications.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educationa Technology Publications.


Broderick,P. C. (2003).  Life span-human development for helping professions.  New Jersey: Prentice Hall.


Cavanaugh, J. C. (2002).  Adult development and aging.  4th ed.  California:  Thompson



Crane, W. (2000).  Theories of Development.  4th ed.  New Jersey: Prentice Hall


Hetherington, E.M., and Parke, R. D.  (2003).  Child psychology.  Boston: McGraw-Hill.


Papalia, D. E. and Olds, S.  (2001).  Human development.  New York:  McGraw-Hill.


Piaget, J. (1951).  The child’s conception of the world.  New Jersey:  Adams &





Gilligan, C.  (1982).  In a different voice.  Massachusetts:  Harvard University Press.


Fowler, J. W. (1981).  Stages of faith:  The psychology of human development and the

quest for meaning.  San Francisco:  Harper & Row.


Habenicht, D. (2003). A Christian perspective of character development.  Berrien Springs, MI: Andrews University.


Habenicht, D. (2000).  10 Christian values every kid should know.  Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald       Publishing Association.


Kohlberg, L. (1981).  The philosophy of moral development:  Moral stages and the idea

 of justice.   San Francisco:  Harper & Row.


Ryan, K. & Bohlin, K.E. (1999). Building character in schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.


White, E. G. (1954).  Child guidance.  Washington, DC:  Review & Herald Publishing Association.





Berger, K. S. (2001).  The developing person through the life span.  5th ed.  New York:  Worth.


Maslow. A. H. (1968). Toward a psychology of being.  2nd ed.  New York:  Van Nostrand Reinhold.


Mittelman, W. (1991).  Maslow’s study of self-actualization:  A reinterpretation.        Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 31(1), 114-135.


Papalia, D., Olds. S, and Feldman, R. (2001). Human development. 8th ed.  Boston:  McGraw-Hill.


Schultz, D., & Schultz, S. E. (2001).  Theories of personality.  7th ed.  Belmont, CA:  Wadsworth Thompson Learning.                  


Woolfolk, A. (2001). Educational psychology.  8th ed. Boston:  Allyn and Bacon.





Berger, K. S. (2001). The developing person through the life span.  5th ed.   New York:  Worth.


Erikson, E. H. (1950).  Childhood and society.  New York:  Norton.


Papalia, D., Olds, S., and Feldman, R. (2001). Human development.  8th ed. Boston:  McGraw-Hill.


Schultz, D., and Schultz, S. E. (2001).   Theories of personality.  7th ed.  Belmont, CA:  Wadsworth

Thompson Learning.

Westen, D. (1998). “The scientific legacy of Sigmund Freud:  Toward a psychodynamically informed psychological science,”  Psychological Bulletin, 124, 333-371.

Woolfolk, A. (2001).  Educational psychology.  8th ed.  Boston:  Allyn & Bacon.


Danielson, C. (1996).  Enhancing professional practice: A framework for teaching.  Washington: Association for Supervision  and Curriculum Development.

Holland, J. L. (1973).  Making vocational choices:  A theory of careers.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice Hall.

Savickas, M. L., and Gottfredson, G. D. (1999).  “Forty years of research and application,” Journal of Vocational Behavior, 55, 1-4.

Zunker, V. (2002).  Career counseling:  Applied concepts of life planning.  6th ed.  Pacific Grove, CA:  Brooks/Cole.

Outcome #2:  Apply current theories of learning


Arend, R.  (1991). Learning to teach.  2nd ed.   New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Ausubel, D.P., (1968).  Educational psychology:  A cognitive view.  New York:  Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

__________. (1960). “The use of advance organizers in the learning and retention of meaningful verbal material,” Journal of Education Psychology, 51, 267-272.

__________. ((1980).  “Schemata, cognitive structure, and advance organizers: a reply to Anderson, Spiro, and Anderson,”            American Educational Research Journal, 17(3), 400-404.

__________. (1963).  The psychology of meaningful verbal learning.  New York: Grune and Stratton, Inc. p.83

Bellon, J. J., Bellon, E. C., and Blank, M. A. (1992).  Teaching from a research knowledge base.  New York: Macmillan.

Borich, G. (1992). Effective teaching methods. 2nd ed.  New York: Merrill.

Bredderman, T. (1981).  Elementary school process curricula:  A meta-analysis.  ERIC Ed. 170-333.

Briggs, L. , Ed., (1977).  Instructional design: principles and applications.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

Briggs, L. and Wagner, W.  (1992).  Principles of instructional design.  4th ed.  Orlando, FL:  Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.

Brophy, J. (1981). “Teacher praise: a functional analysis,”  Review of Educational Research, 51, 5-32.

Bruner, J. (1961).  The process of education.  Cambridge, MA:  Harvard University Press.

Bruner, J., Goodnow, J.J., Austin, S.A. (1967).  A study of thinking.  New York:  Science Editions, Inc.

Buckalew, M. (1992).  Twenty principles for teaching excellence:  the teachers’ workbook.  Wilmington, DE:  Research for School Management.

Charles, C. M.  (1991).  Building classroom discipline.  4th ed.  White Plains, NY: Longman.

Cooper, J., (Ed.). (1990).  Classroom teaching skills.  4th ed.  Lexington, MA:  D. C.  Heath and Company.

Eggen, P. and Kauchak. (2001).  Educational psychology:  windows on classrooms.  Upper Saddle River, NJ:  Merrill Prentice Hall.

Emmer, E.  T. , Evertson, C. M., Worsham, M. E. (2002). Classroom management for elementary teachers.   Boston:  Allyn and Bacon.

Esler, W.  and Sciortino, P. (1991).  Methods for teaching: An overview of current practices.  2nd ed.  Raleigh, NC:  Contemporary Publishing Company.

Evertson, C. M., Emmer, E. T., Clements, B. S., Standford, J. P., and Worsham, M. E. (1984).  Classroom management for elementary teachers.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice Hall.

Fullan, M. (1982). The meaning of educational change.  New York: Teachers College Press.

Fullan, M. and Steiegelbauer, S. (1991).  The new meaning of educational change.  New York: Teachers College Press.

Gagne, R. M. (1971). “The learning of concepts.” In M. David Merrill, ed., Instructional design: readings.  Englewood  Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Gentry, C. (1994).  Introduction to instructional development.  Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Glasser, W.  (1986).  Control theory in the classroom.  New York: Harper and Row.

Good, T. and Brophy, J. (1991).  Looking in classrooms.  5th ed.  New York: Harper Collins Publishers.

Goodlad, J. (1983).  A place called school.  New York: McGraw-Hill.

Gredler, M. E.  (2001).  Learning and instruction:  Theory into practice.  4th ed.  New Jersey:  Merrill Prentice Hall.

Gronlund, N. (1991).  How to write and use instructional objectives.  4th ed.  New York:  Macmillan Publishing Company.

Henson, K.  (1993).  Methods and strategies for teaching in secondary and middle schools.  2nd ed.  New York: Longman.

Jarolimek, J. and Foster, C., Sr.  (1993).  Teaching and learning in the elementary school.  5th ed. NewYork:  Macmillan Publishing Company.

Jones, F. (1987).  Positive classroom instruction.  New York:  McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Jones, F. (2000).  Tools of teaching.  Hong Kong:  Fredric H. Jones & Association.

Johnson, D. W., and Johnson, R. T. (1974). “Instructional goal structures:  Cooperative, competitive, or individualistic,” Review of Educational Research, 44, 213-240.

__________. (1981). “Effects of cooperative and individualistic learning experiences on inter-ethnic interaction,”  Journal of Educational Psychology, 73(3), 444-449.

Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T.,  and Halubec, E. J.  (1993).  Circles of learning:  cooperation in the classroom. Edina, MN:  Interaction Book Company.

Joyce, B., Hersh, R., and McKibben, M. (1983).  The structure of school improvement.  New York: Longman.

Joyce, B., Peck, L.,  and Brown, C.  Flexibility in Teaching.  New York:  Longman, Inc.

Joyce, B., and Showers, B. (1983). Power in staff development through research in training.  Washington: Association  for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

__________. (1988).  Student achievement through staff development.  White Plains: Longman, Inc.

__________. (1981).  “Transfer of training: The contribution of coaching,” Journal of Education, 163, 163-172.  Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

__________. (1982).  “The coaching of teaching,” Educational Leadership, 40(1), 4-10.

Joyce, B., Weils, M. (2000).  Models of teaching.  6th ed.  Boston:  Allyn & Bacon.

Kagan, S. (1997).  Cooperative learning.  San Juan Capistrano, CA: Resources for Teachers.

Kagan, S. (1989).  Cooperative learning resources for teachers.  San Juan Capistrano, CA: Resources for  Teachers.

Kauffman, J., Mostert, M.,  Nuttycombe, D., Trent, S., and Hallahan, D. (1993).  Managing classroom behavior.  Boston:  Allyn and Bacon.

Kauchak, D., and Eggen, P. (1993).  Learning and teaching: research-based methods. Second edition,  Boston:  Allyn and Bacon.

Kemp, J.  (1985).  The instructional design process.  New York: Harper and Row Publishers.

Kim, E., and Kellough, R. (1991).  A resource guide for secondary teaching:  planning for competence.  5th  ed.  New York:  Macmillan Publishing Company.

Kohn, A. (1986).  No contest.  Boston, MA:  Houghton Mifflin.

Kounin. J. S. (1970). Discipline and group management in classrooms.  New York:  Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Kubiszyn, T. and Borich, G. (1987).  Educational testing and measurement:  Classroom application and practice.  2nd ed.  Glenview, IL:  Scott-Foresman.

Larson, R. and Larson, D. with Gillespie, V. B. (1992).  Project affirmation:  Teaching values. Riverside, CA:  La Sierra University Press.

Lefrancois, G. R.  (2000).  Psychology for teaching.  4th ed.  Belmont, CA:  Wadsworth Thompson Learning.

Levin, J. R. (1990).  “Scientific mnemonics:  Methods for maximizing more than memory,” American Educational Research Journal, 22, 302-321.

Levin, J. R., McCormick, C., Miller, Hl, Berry, J.  (1982).  “Mnemonic versus nonmnemonic strategies for children,” American Education Research Journal, 19 (i), 121-136.

Lorayne, H., and Lucas, J. (1974).  The memory book.  NY:  Briercliff  Manor.

MacDonald, R. (1991).  A handbook of basic skills and strategies for beginning teachers.  New York: Longman.

Madaus, G.,  Kellaghan, T., and Schwab, R.  (1989).  Teach them well.  New York: Harper & Row.

 Marzano, R.J., Arredondo, D.E., Brandt, R.S., Pickering, D.J., Glackburn, G.J., and Moffet, C.A.  (1997).  Dimensions of learning: Teacher’s manual.  Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Murphy, C. (1992). “Study groups foster school wide learning,” Educational Leadership,  71-74.

Orlich, D., Harder, R., Callahan, R., Kauchack, D., Rendergrass, R., Keogh, A. and Gibson, H. (1990).  Teaching strategies:  A guide to better instruction. 3rd ed.  Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath and Company.

Ormrod, J. E. (1999).  Human learning.  3rd ed.  New Jersey:  Merrill Prentice Hall.


Pressley, M.,  (1977).  “Children’s use of the keyword method to learn simple Spanish vocabulary words,” Journal of Educational Psychology, 69 (5) 465-472.

Pressley, M.,  Levin, J. R.,  & Delaney, H. D. (1982).  “The mnemonic keyword method,” Review of Educational Research, 52(1), 61-91.

Pressley, M., Dennis-Rounds, J. (1980).  “Transfer of a mnemonic keyword strategy at two age levels,”  Journal of Educational Psychology,  72(4), 575-582.

Reigeluth, C. M. (1999).  Instructional-design: Theories and models.  Mahwah, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Riegle, R. P. (1976). “Classifying classroom questions,” Journal of Teacher Education, 27, 156-161.

Rosenshine, B. (1976).  “Direct instruction.”  In  M. J. Duncan, ed., The international encyclopedia of teaching and teacher education.  Oxford:  Pergamon Press, pp. 257-262. 

Schon, D.  (1982).  The reflective practitioner.  New York: Basic Books.

Schunk, D. H.  (2000).  Learning theories:  An educational perspective.  3rd ed.  New Jersey:  Merrill Prentice Hill.

Sharan, S. (1990). Cooperative learning: Theory and research.  New York:  Praeger.

Sharan, S. (1980). “Cooperative learning in small groups: Recent methods and effects on achievement, attitudes, and ethnic relations,”  Review of Educational Research, 50(2),  241-271.

Showers, B. (1985).  “Teachers coaching teachers,” Educational Leadership, 42(7), 43-49.

Slavin, R. E. (1983).  Cooperative learning.  New York:  Longman.

Smith, K., and Smith, M. (1966).  Cybernetic principles of learning and educational design.  New York:  Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Smith, P. and Ragan, T. (1993).  Instructional design.  New York:  Macmillan Publishing Company.

Stipek, D. (1993).  Motivation to learn: from theory to practice.  2nd ed.  Boston:  Allyn and Bacon.

Taba, H. (1966). Teaching strategies and cognitive functioning in elementary school children.  (Cooperative Research Project 2404).  San Francisco: San Francisco State College.

Taba, H. (1967).  Teacher’s handbook for elementary school social studies.  Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Inc.

Vermette, P. J.  (1998).  Making  cooperative learning work:  Student teams in K-12 classrooms. Columbus, OH:  Merrill, Prentice Hall.

Wang, M. and Lindvall, C.  (1984).  “Individual differences and school learning environments,” Review of Research in Education, 11, 161-225.

West, C., Farmer, J. and Wolff, P. (1991).  Instructional design: Implications from cognitive science.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice Hall.

White, E. G. (1968).  Counsels on education. Mountain view, CA: Pacific Press Publishing Association.

__________. (1943). Counsels to parents, teachers, and students.  Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing Association.

__________.  (1952).  Education.  Mountain View CA:  Pacific Press Publishing Association.

__________. (1923).  Fundamentals of Christian education.  Nashville: Southern Publishing Association.

Worthen, B. (1968).  “A study of discovery and expository presentation: Implications for teaching,”  Journal of Teacher Education,  19, 223-242.


Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy:  The exercise of control.  New York:  Freeman.

Bandura, A., Pastorelli, C., Barbaranelli, C., and Caprara, G. V. (1999).  “Self-efficacy pathways to childhood depression,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 258-269.

Berger, K. S. (2001).  The developing person through the life span.  5th ed.   New York:  Worth.

Papalia, D., Olds, S., and Feldman, R. (2001).  Human development.  8th ed.  Boston:  McGraw-Hill.

Schlutz, D., and Schlutz, S. E. (2001).  Theories of personality.  7th ed.  Belmont, CA:  Wadsworth Thompson Learning.

Woolfolk., A. (2001). Educational psychology.  8th ed.  Boston:  Allyn & Bacon.


Berger, K. S. (2001). The developing person throughout the life span.  5th ed.  New York:  Worth.

Papalia, D., Olds, S., and Feldman, R. (2001).  Human development.  8th ed.  Boston:  McGraw-Hill.

Schultz, D., and Schultz, S. E. (2001). “B. F. Skinner,” In Theories of personality.  7th ed.  Belmont, CA:  Wadsworth Thompson Learning.

Skinner, B. F. (1971). Beyond freedom and dignity.  New York:  Knopf.

__________. (1987).  “Whatever happened to psychology as the science of behavior?”  American Psychologist, 42, 780-786.

Woolfolk, A. (2001). Educational psychology.  8th ed.  Boston:  Allyn & Bacon.


Armstrong, T. (1994).  Multiple intelligences in the classroom.   Alexandria, VA:  Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Coleman, D.  (1995).  Emotional intelligence.  New York:  Bantam Books.

Gardner, H.  (1983).  Frames of mind:  The theory of multiple intelligences.  New York: Basic Books.

Gregorc, A.  (1985).  Inside styles:  Beyond the basics:  Questions and answers.  Columbia, CT:  Gregorc Associates.

Santrock, J.  W.  (2001).  Child development.  New York:  McGraw-Hill.


Element 3: Servant Leader

Outcome #1:  Facilitate change in groups and organizations


Ackerman, Richard F., Donaldson, Gordon A, van der Bogert, Rebecca (1996). Making sense as     a school leader.  San Francisco: Jossey Bass.


Action Learning for Individual and Organizational Development.


Allington, R. L. (2001). What really matters for struggling readers. New York: Longman.


Anthony, R. J., Johnson, T.D., Mickelson, N.I., & Preece, A. (1991).  Evaluating literacy: a perspective for change.  Portsmouth, NH:  Heinemann.


Anticipating and Managing Change in Educational Organizations.


Applebee, A. (1986). The writing report card: Writing achievement in American schools. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.


Applebee, A. N. (1984). Contexts for learning to write:  Studies of secondary school instruction. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.


Armbruster, B.B., Anderson, R.C., & Mall, V.C. (1991). “Preparing Teachers for Literacy.” Educational Leadership,  49(3), 21-24.


Atwell, N. (Ed.). (1990a). Coming to know:  Writing to learn in the intermediate grades. Portsmouth, NH:  Heinemann.


Avila, L. (April 1990). Just what is instructional leadership anyway?  NASSP Bulletin, 74(525), 52-56.


Benne, Robert  (2001).  Quality with soul:  how six premier colleges and universities keep faith with their religious traditions.  Grand Rapids, MI:  William B. Eerdmans.


Bennis, Warren (1989). On becoming a leader.  Reading, MA: Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.


Bernd Runde:  Personnel Management, Organizational Development.


Beyer, Landon E., and Apple, Michael W., eds. (1998).  The curriculum:  problems, politics, and possibilities.  2nd ed.  Albany, NY:  State University of New York Press.                                                                                     


Blau, Peter M.  (1994).  The organization of academic work.  2nd ed.  New Brunswick, NJ:  Transaction Publishers.


Bloland, P., Stamatakos, L., and Rogers, R. (1994).  Reform in student affairs:  a critique of student development.  Greensboro, NC:  ERIC Counseling & Student Service Clearinghouse.


Brint, Steven, ed.  (2002).  The future of the city of intellect:  the changing American university.  Stanford:  Stanford University Press.


Caine, R. N., & Caine, G. (1997).  Education on the edge of possibility.  Alexandria, VA:  Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).


Carrell, M., Jennings, D. & Heavrin, C. (1997).  Fundamentals of organizational behavior.  New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.


Center for Leadership and Change Management., G., Corey, M. S., and Haynes, R.  (2000).  Evolution of a group:  student video and workbook.  Pacific Grove, CA:  Brooks/Cole-Wadsworth.


Cooper, L. (1989).  “Redefining the principalship:  The principal as instructional leader,” Principal, 68(3), 13-16.


Corey, M. S. & Corey, G.  (2002).  Groups:  process and practice.  6th ed.  Pacific Grove, CA:  Brooks/Cole.


Cuban, L. (Oct. 93). “The Lure of Curricular Reform and Its Pitiful History,” Phi Delta Kappan.  75:2, p. 182(4p).


De Jong, Arthur J.  (1990).  Reclaiming a mission:  new direction for the church-related college.  Grand Rapids, MI:  William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.


Dunkerly, David, ed.  (2001).  Global perspectives on quality in higher education.  Aldershot, UK:  Ashgate.


Educational Associations and Organizations.


Educational Initiatives Strategic Planning Task Force.


Educational Opportunity 2001-2005 Strategic Planning.


Ernest, R. C.  (1994).  Corporate cultures and effective planning.  Personnel Administrator, 30(3), 49-60.




Fullan, M. (1995).  Change forces:  Probing the depths of educational reform.  Bristol, PA:  Falmer Press.


Fullan, M. (1997a). What's worth fighting for in the principalship? Strategies for taking charge in the school principalship. (2nd. ed). Mississagua, ON:  Ontario Public School Teachers’ Federation.


Hesselbein, F., Goldsmith, M., & Beckhard, R.  (1996).  The leader of the future:  new visions, strategies, and practices for the next era.  San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass.


Jacobson, S. L., & Berne, R., eds.  (1993).  Reforming education:  the emerging systemic approach.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Corwin Press.


Katzenbach, J. R. & Smith, D. K. (1993).  The wisdom of teams:  Creating the high-performance organization.  New York:  Harper Collins.


Kaufman, R. A.  (1991).  Strategic planning in education.  Rethinking, restructuring, revitalizing.  Lancaster:  Technomic Publishers.


Kouzes, James and Posner, Barry (1995).  Credibility.  San Francisco:  Jossey Bass.


__________.  (1996). The leadership challenge. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.


Leithwood, K. (1992). The move toward transformational leadership.  Educational Leadership, 49(5), 8-12.


Leslie, David W., & Fretwell, E. K.  (1996).  Wise moves in hard times:  creating and managing resilient colleges and universities.  San Francisco, CA:  Jossey-Bass Publishers.


Miles, K. M.  (1995).  “Freeing resources for improving schools:  a case study of teacher allocation in Boston public schools.”  Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 17(4), 476-493.


Milone, M. (Aug. 1998). Technology Integration Master Class. Technology and Learning. 19.1, pp. 6-16.


Minnesota Organization Development Network (Study of the theories and structures of organizations).


Murphy, J. (1988). Methodological, measurement, and conceptual problems in the study of instructional leadership.  Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 10(2), 117-139.


Murphy, J. (1990).  “Instructional leadership: Focus on curriculum responsibilities,” NASSP Bulletin, 74(525), 1-4.


Naisbitt, J., and Aberdeen, P.  (1985).  Re-inventing the corporation:  transforming your job and your company for the new information society.  New York:  Warner Books.


On-Line Organization Development Program Module.



Organizational Development—Root Learning, Inc.


Organizational Learning and Development.


Salpeter, J. (Nov. 9, 1998a).  Interview with David Dwyer. Ed Tech Research Forum. Technology and Learning Online.


Salpeter, J. (Nov. 9, !998b). Interview with Larry Cuban, Ed Tech Research Forum, Technology and Learning Online.


Skinner, B.F. (October, 1986).  “Programmed Instruction Revisited,” Phi Delta Kappan 68:2, pp. 103-110.


Tellefsen, Thomas E.  (1990).  Improving college management:  an integrated systems approach.  San Francisco, CA:  Jossey-Bass Publishers.


Theall, Michael, and Franklin, Jennifer, eds.  (1990).  Student ratings of instruction:  issues for improving practice.  In the series, New directions for teaching and learning, no. 43.  San Francisco, CA:  Jossey-Bass Publishers.


Trowler, Paul R., ed.  (2002).  Higher education policy and institutional change.  Buckingham, UK:  Open University.


Wheatley, M. (1994).  Leadership and the new science: Learning about organization from an orderly universe.. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.


Wheatley, M. & Kellner-Rogers, M. (1996).  A Simpler Way. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.


Woodard, H.  (1994).   Navigating through change.  Burr Ridge, IL:  Irwin Professional Publishing. 


Yale Organizational Development and Learning Center.




Outcome #2: Relate effectively with various cultural, racial, and special interest groups


American Psychiatric Association (2000).  Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., Text revision).  Washington, DC:  Author.  (EDPC650)


Aponte, J., Rivers, R. Y., and Wohl, J., eds.  (1995).   Psychological interventions and cultural diversity.  New York:  Allyn & Bacon.


Arthur, N. and Achenbach, K.  (2002). “Developing multicultural counseling competencies through experiential learning.”  Counselor Education & Supervision, 42, 2-13.


Atkinson, D. R., Morten, G., and Sue, D. W.  (1993).  Counseling American minorities:  a cross-cultural perspective.  Dubuque, Iowa:  Wm. C. Brown.


Axelson, J. A. (1999).  Counseling and development in a multicultural society (3rd ed.)  Pacific Grove, CA:  Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.


Baruth, L. D.  (1991).  Multicultural counseling and psychotherapy:  a lifespan perspective.  New York:  Macmillan Publishing Company.


Bellanca, J., Cahpman, C., and Swartz, E. (1994).  Multiple assessments for multiple intelligences. (2nd ed.)  Arlington Heights, IL:  IRA/Skylight Training and Publishing, Inc.


Bloom, B. S., ed.  (1956).  Taxonomy of educational objectives, handbook 1:  The cognitive domain.  New York:  McKay.


Bloom, B. S., Madaus, G. J., and Hastings, J. T. (1981).  Evaluation to improve learning.  New York:  McGraw-Hill.


Buehl, D. (2001). Classroom strategies for interactive learning.  2nd ed.  Newark, NJ: International Reading Association.


Canglosi, J. S. (1990).  Designing tests for evaluating student achievement.   New York:  Longman.


Cárdenas, J. A.  (1995).  Multicultural education:  a generation of advocacy.  Needle Heights, MI:  Simon and Schuster.


Constantine, M.  (2002).  “The intersection of race, ethnicity, gender and social class in counseling:  expanding selves in cultural contexts.” Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 20, 210-214.


Cronbach, L. J. (1984). Essentials of psychological testing.  (4th ed.). New York: Harper & Row.


Daw, J.  (2001).  “Culture counts in mental health services.”  Monitor on Psychology, 32, (11).


Dunn, R. S.  & Griggs, S. A.  (1995).  Multiculturalism and learning style:  teaching and counseling adolescents.  Westport, CN:  Praeger.


__________.   Educational Testing Service. (1990).  Creative classroom testing:  10 designs for assessment and instruction.  Princeton, NJ:  Educational Testing Service.


Gollick, D. M., and Chinn, P. C.  (2003).  Multicultural education in a pluralistic society.  Upper Saddle River, NJ:  Merrill.


Gronlund, N. E. (2003).  Assessment of student achievement.  (7th ed.).  Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.


__________. (1991).  How to write and use instructional objectives.  (4th ed.). New York: MacMillan Publishing Company.


Hammeken, P. A.  (1997).  450 strategies for success:  a practical guide for all educators who teach students with disabilities.  Minnetonka, MN:  Peytral Publications.


Hardman, M., Drew, C., & Egan, W.  (1999).  Human exceptionality (6th ed.).  Boston:  Allyn & Bacon. 


HCG—Organizational Culture Assessment.


Helgeson, Sally (1990).  The female advantage:  Women's way of leadership.  New York: Doubleday Currency.


Herman, J., Aschbacher, P., and Winters, L.A. (1992).  Practical guide to alternative assessment. ASCD.


Hernandez, T. & Morales, N.  (1999).  “Career, culture and compromise:  career development experiences of Latinos working in higher education.”  The Career Development Quarterly, 48, 45-57.


Hill, M. S., & Ragland, J. C.  (1995).  Women as educational leaders.  Thousand Oaks, California:  Corwin Press.


Hoover, J. J. and Patton, J. R.  (1997).  Curriculum adaptations for students with learning and behavior problems:  principles and practices.  2nd ed.  Austin, TX:  Pro-Ed.


The International Handbook of Organizational Culture and Climate.,9049,92930,00.html


Ivey, A. E.  (1994).  International interviewing and counseling:  facilitating development in a multicultural society.  3rd ed.  Pacific Grove, CA:  Brooks/Cole.


__________, Ivey, M. G., and Simek-Morgan, L.  (1993).  Counseling and psychotherapy:  a multicultural perspective.  Boston:  Allyn & Bacon.


Lane, K. L., Gresham, F. M., and O’Shaughnessy, T. E.  (2002).  Interventions for children with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders.  Upper Saddle River, NJ:  Merrill Prentice Hall.


Lee, C., and Richardson, B. L., eds.  (1991).  Multicultural issues in counseling:  new approaches to diversity.  Alexandria, VA:  American Association for Counseling & Development.


Lorber, M. A. and Pierce, W. D. (1990).  Objectives, methods and evaluation for secondary teaching.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice Hall.


Manning, M. L. and Baruth, L. G.  (2000).   Multicultural education of children and adolescents.  Boston, MA:  Allyn and Bacon.


Mastropieri, M. A., and Scruggs, T. E.  (2000).  The inclusive classroom:  strategies for effective instruction.  Upper Saddle River, NJ:  Merrill Prentice Hall.


McLean, M., Wolery, M., and Bailey, D.  (2004).  Assessing infants and preschoolers with special needs.  Upper Saddle River, NJ:  Pearson Educational, Inc.


Meyen, E. L., Vergason, G. A., and Whelan, R. J.  (1996).  Strategies for teaching exceptional children in inclusive settings.  Denver:  Love.


Miller, P.W. and Erickson, H. E. (1990). How to write tests for students.  Washington, D.C.: National Education Association.


Miller, S. P.  (2002).  Validated practices for teaching students with diverse needs and abilities.  Boston:  Allyn and Bacon.


Norris, N. (1990). Understanding educational evaluation.  New York:  St. Martin’s Press.


Osterlind, S. J. (1989).  Constructing test items.  Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.


Paniagua, F. A.  (1994).  Assessing and treating culturally diverse clients:  a practical guide.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage Publications.


Pedersen, P. B.  (1997).  Culture-centered counseling interventions:  striving for accuracy.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage Publications.


__________.  (1990).  Handbook of cross-cultural counseling and psychotherapy.  New York:  Pergamon Press.


Perrone, K., Sedlack, W., and Alexander, C.  (2001). “Gender and ethnic differences in career goal attainment.”  Career Development Quarterly, 50, 168-179.


Perrone, V., ed. (1991).  Expanding student assessment.  Alexandria, VA:  Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.


Pierangelo, R. and Giuliani, G. A.  (2001).  What every teacher should know about students with special needs:  promoting success in the classroom.  Champaign, IL:  Research Press.


Readence, J. E., Bean, T. W., & Baldwin, R. S. (2001).  Content area literacy:  An integrated approach.  Dubuque, IA:  Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.


Riley, C. R.  (1995).  Overcoming unintentional racism in counseling and therapy:  a practitioner’s guide to intentional intervention.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage Publications.


Salzman, M.  (2000).  “Promoting multicultural competence:  a cross-cultural mentorship project,” Journal of Counseling and Development, 28, 119-125.


Schein, E. H.  (1985).  Organizational culture and leadership.  San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass



Sergiovanni, T. J. (1994). Building community in schools.  San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass Publishers.


Shakeshaft, C.  (1987).  Women in educational administration.  Los Angeles:  Sage Publishers.


Smith, T. E. C., Polloway, E. A., Patton, J. R., and Dowdy, C. A.  (2001).  Teaching students with special needs in inclusive settings.  3rd ed.  Boston:  Allyn and Bacon.


Sprick, R., Sprick, M., and Garrison, M.  (1993).  Interventions:  collaborative planning for students at risk.  Longmont, CO:  Sopris West.


Sue, D. W., and Sue, D.  (1990).  Counseling the culturally different:  theory and practice.  2nd ed.  New York:  Wiley.


__________, Ivey, A. E., & Pedersen, P.  (1996).  Theory of multicultural counseling and therapy.  Pacific Grove:  Brooks/Cole.


Trusty,  J.  (2002).   “African Americans’ educational expectations:  longitudinal causal models for women and men,”  Journal of Counseling and Development, 80, 332-345.


Turnbull, R., Turnbull, A., Shank, M., Smith, S., and Leal, D.  (2002).  Exceptional lives:  special education in today’s schools.  3rd ed.  Upper River Valley, NJ:  Merrill Prentice Hall.


__________.  Exceptional lives—study guide.  3rd ed.  Upper River Valley, NJ, Columbus, OH:  Merrill, Prentice Hall.


Vacc, N. A., Wittmer, J., and DeVaney, S.  (1988).  Experiencing and counseling multi-cultural and diverse populations.  Muncie, IN:  Accelerated Development, Inc.


Wolf, R. M. (1990). Evaluation in education. 3rd ed.  New York:  Praeger.


Wood, J. W.  (2002).  Adapting instruction to accommodate students in inclusive settings.  4th ed.  Upper Saddle River, NJ:  Merrill Prentice Hall.


Worthen, B., White, K., Fan, X., and Sudweeks, R. (1999).  Measurement and assessment in schools.  2nd ed.  Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.


Yalom, Irvin D. (1995).  The theory and practice of group psychotherapy.  4th ed.  New York, NY:  Basic Books.



Outcome #3:  Identify political and legal issues


Aby, Stephen H.  (2000).  Academic freedom:  a guide to the literature.  Westport, CT:  Greenwood.


Alexander, Kern and Alexander, M. David  (2001).  American public school law. 5th ed. West.


Altbach, Philip G., ed.  (2001).  In defense of American higher education.  Baltimore:  Johns Hopkins University Press.


Arnold, J. D.  (1992).  The complete problem solver:  a total system for competitive decision making.  New York:  Wiley.


Beckham, J. (1983).  “Critical elements of the employment relationship.”  In J. Beckham & P. A. Zirkel, eds.,  Legal issues in public school employment (pp. 1-21).  Bloomington, IN:  Phi Delta Kappa.


Beckham, Joseph  (1996).  Meeting legal challenges.  Lancaster, PA:  Technomic Publishing Company.


Beyer, Landon E., and Apple, Michael W., eds.  (1998).  The curriculum:  problems, politics, and possibilities.  2nd ed.  Albany, NY:  State University of New York Press.


Bryan, William A., and Mullendore, Richard H., eds. (1992).  Rights, freedoms, and responsibilities of students.   In the series, New directions for student services, no. 59.  San Francisco, CA:  Jossey-Bass Publishers.


Day, Reed B.  (1994).  Legal issues surrounding safe schools.  Topeka, KA:  National Organization on Legal Problems of Education.


First, P. F.  (1992).  Educational policies for school administrators.  Boston:  Allyn and Bacon.


Fischer/Sorenson (1996).  School law for counselors, psychologists and social workers.  3rd ed.  Longman Publishers. 


Furst, L. G. and Russo, C. J. (1993).  The legal aspects of nonpublic schools.  Berrien Springs, MI:  Andrews University Press.


Golding, Martin P.  (2000).  Free speech on campus.  Lanham, MD:  Rowman & Littlefield.


Gordon, William (1994).  The law of home schooling.  Topeka, KA:  National Organization on Legal Problems of Education.


Greene, R.  (1998).  The 48 laws of power.  New York:  Penguin Books.


Heubert, Jay P., ed.  (1999)  Law and school reform:  six strategies for promoting educational equity.  New Haven:  Yale University Press.


Imber, Michael, and Van Geel, Tyll.  (1993).  Education law.  New York:  McGraw-Hill, Inc.


Kelly, Evelyn B.  (1998).  Legal basics:  a handbook for educators.  Bloomington, IN:  Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.


Managing with Power, Politics and Influence in Organizations.


Mawdsley, Ralph D.  (1995).  Legal problems of religious and private schools.  3rd ed.  Topeka, KS:  NOLPE.


Morgan, Kerry L.  (1997).  Real choice, real freedom in American education:  the legal and constitutional case for parental rights and against governmental control of American education.  Lanham:  University Press of America.


Oliva, P.F. (1989). Supervision for today's schools. (3rd ed.). New York: Longman Inc.


Power and Politics in Organizations (Power Point).


Randall, Vance E.  (1994).  Private schools and public power:  a case for pluralism.  New York:  Teacher’s College Press.


Rapp, James A.  (1993).   Education law.  New York:  Matthew Bender.


Schimmel, David, ed.  (1996).  Research that makes a difference:  complementary methods for examining legal issues in education.  Topeka, KS:  National Organization on Legal Problems of Education.


Shoop, Robert J. and Dunklee, Dennis R.  (1992).  School law for the principal.  Boston:  Allyn and Bacon, Inc.


Slater, Judith J., ed.  (2002).  Freirean legacy:  educating for social justice.  New York:  Peter Lang.


Spring, Joel H.  (1999).  Wheels in the head:  educational philosophies of authority, freedom, and culture from Socrates to human rights.  2nd ed.  New York, NY:  McGraw-Hill.


Streshly, William A. and Frase, Larry E.  (1992).  Avoiding legal hassles:  what school administrators really need to know.  Newbury Park, CA:  Corwin Press.


Trotter, A. (February 25, 1998). “Internet Access Raises Issue of Student Privacy,” Education Week, pp. 1, 8.


Thomas, Stephen B.  (1994).  The yearbook of education law 1994.  Topeka, KS:  NOLPE.



Valente, William D.  (1998).  Law in the schools.  4th ed.  New York:  Macmillan Publishing Co.


__________.  Private school law in America.  2nd ed.  Rosemount, MN:  Data Research, Inc.


Outcome #4:  Manage human, financial, and material resources



AASA (American Association of School Administrators),  March 9, 1999, Five points to make about … education spending.


Abrahamson, P. (1992, May). “Building boom breaks record,” American School and University, 64, 37-53.


Agron, J. (1995, Oct.). “Building the model school,” American School and University , 68, 18-24.


Agyris, C., & Schon, D. A.  (1974).  Theory into practice:  increasing professional effectiveness.  San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass.


Alexander, Kern and Salmon, Richard G.  (1995).  Public school finance.  Boston:  Allyn & Bacon.


Anthony, P., & Norton, A. N.  (1991). “Link HR to corporate strategy,” Personnel Journal, 70, 75-82.


Arreola, Raoul A.  (1995).  Developing a comprehensive faculty evaluation system.  Bolton, MA:  Anker Publishing Co.


Astin, A. (1993).  What matters in college:  four critical years revisited.  San Francisco, CA:  Jossey-Bass Publishers.


Axline & Carmichael (1990).  Dibs in search of self.  Ballantire books.  (EDPC686)


Babineau, R.; Farlely, R.; Dunlap, L. & Stanna, J. (1992). “The wave of the future prototype classrooms/laboratories,” Educational Facility Planner, 30, 58-61.


Bailey, C. Everett, ed.  (2000).  Children in therapy:  using the family as a resource.  New York:  W. W. Norton & Company.


Barr, Margaret J., et al.  The handbook of student affairs administration.  San Francisco, CA:  Jossey-Bass Publishers.


Barr, Margaret J., Upcraft, M. L., et al.  (1990).   New futures for student affairs:  building a vision for professional leadership and practice.  San Francisco, CA:  Jossey-Bass Publishers.


Bates, A.W. (2000).  Managing technological change:  Strategies for college and university leaders.  San Francisco:  Jossey Bass.


Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.  (2001).  Making their own way:  narratives for transforming higher education to promote self-development.  Sterling, VA:  Stylus Publishing.


Beck, J. S. (1995). Cognitive therapy:  Basics and beyond.  New York:  Guilford.


Behavior Online Resources:  Kathie Dannemiller and Whole-Scale.




Bennis, W. G. (1989).  Why leaders can’t lead.  The unconscious conspiracy continues.  San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass Publishers.


Benson, C. S.  (1978).  The economics of public education.  3rd ed.  Boston:  Houghton Mifflin Co.


Bernard, J. M. & Goodyear, R. K.  (1998).  Fundamentals of clinical supervision (2nd ed.).  Boston:  Allyn & Bacon. 


Black, M., & Matula, K. (2000).  Essentials of Bayley scales of infant development-II.  New York:  John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Bohart, Arthur C., and Tallman, Karen. (1999).  How clients make therapy work:  The process of active self-healing.  American Psychological Association.


Bolton, J. E.  (1997).  Human resource management for public and nonprofit organizations.  San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass.


Bolton, T.  (1997).  Human resource management:  an introduction.  Cambridge, MA:  Blackwell.


Brooks, D.M. . “The First Day of School,” Educational Leadership, Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 76-78.


Burden, P. R.  (2003).  Classroom management:  creating a successful learning community.  New York, NY:  Wiley Publishing.


Burns, D. B.  (1989).  The feeling good handbook.  New York:  Penguin Books.


Burns, D. (1989).  Feeling good: The new mood therapy.  New York: Signet.


__________.  (1993).  Ten days to self-esteem.  New York:  William Morrow.


Burrup, Percy E., Brimley, V., & Garfield, Rulon R. (2002).  Financing education in a climate of change.  8th ed.   Boston: Allyn and Bacon.


Campion, M. (1995). “The supposed demise of bureaucracy: implication for distance education and open learning – more on the post-Fordism debate,” Distance Education, 16 (2), pp. 192-215.


Carter, C. C.  (1994).  Human resources management and the total quality imperative.  New York:  American Management Association.


Cascio, W. F.  (1991).  Applied psychology in personnel management.  (4th ed.)  Reston, VA:  Reston.


Castaldi, B. (1994).  Educational facilities:  planning, modernization, and management.  (4th ed.)

            Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.


The Center for Organizational and Personal Excellence.


CERC (Educational decision making through data based problem.  Training for professional leadership)


Clune, W. H.  (1994).  “The shift from equity to adequacy in school finance,”  Educational Policy. 8(4), 376-395.




Communicating Leadership:  An Organizational Perspective (book).,4096,0205157971,00.html


Coomes, Michael D., and Gehring, Donald D., eds. (1994).  Student services in a changing federal climate.  In the series, New directions for student services, no. 68.  San Francisco, CA:  Jossey-Bass Publishers.


Conway, K. (1998). “Designing classrooms for the 21st century,” in Oblinger, D. and Rush, S. (eds.). The future compatible campus.  Bolton, MA:  Anker, pp. 198-217.


Cooper, C.  (1999).  Intelligence and abilities.  New York, NY:  Routledge.


Corey, G.  (1996).  Case approach to counseling and psychotherapy.  4th ed.  Pacific Grove, CA:  Brooks/Cole.


Corey, G. (2001).  Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy.  (6th ed.)  Pacific Grove, CA:  Brooks-Cole/Wadsworth.


Covey, Stephen R.  (1990).  The seven habits of highly effective people:  powerful lessons in personal change.  New York, NY:  Simon & Schuster.


Creamer, D., et al.  (1990).  College student development:  theory and practice for the 1990s.  Alexandria, VA:  American College Personnel Association.


Davis, M., Eshelman, E. R., & McKay, M.  (1995).  The relaxation & stress reduction workbook.  4th ed.  Oakland, CA:  New Harbinger Publications.


Day, C. W.  (1993, Nov.).  The shape of schools to come.  American School and University, 66,  7-9.


De Cenzo, D. A. & Robbins, S. P.  (1994).   Human resource management:  concepts and practice.  4th ed.  New York:  John Wiley & Sons.


Delman, A. S. (1990, July). “Current construction uses dispel myths,” American School and University, 62,  38-41.


Dickeson, Robert C.  (1998).  Prioritizing academic programs and services:  reallocating resources to achieve strategic balance.  San Francisco, CA:  Jossey-Bass Publishers.


Designing web pages.


Dessler, G.  (1997).  Human resources management.  (7th ed.)  Upper Saddle River, NJ:  Prentice Hall.


Developing educational leaders.


The difference between organizational culture and climate.


Doerr, E., Menendea, A. J. & Swomley, J. M.  (1996).  The case against school vouchers.  Amherst, NY:  Prometheus Books.


Driscoll, M. P.  (2000).  Psychology of learning for instruction.  Boston, MA:  Allyn and Bacon.


Drucker, P. F.  (1939).  The end of economic man.  New York:  The John Day Company.


__________.  (1972).  Concept of the corporation.  New York:  The John Day Company.


__________.  (1985).  The effective executive.  New York:  Harper and Row.


__________.  (1985)  Management:  tasks, responsibilities, practices.  (1st ed.)  New York:  Harper and Row.


Dryden, W., & DiGiuseppe, R.  (1990).   A primer on rational-emotive therapy.  Champaign, IL:  Research Press.


Dubrin, A. J.  (1995).  Leadership:  research findings, practice, and skills.  Princeton, NJ:  Houghton Mifflin Company.


DuFour, R. P.  (1991).  The principal as staff developer.  Bloomington, Indiana:  National Educational Service.


Duke, Christopher  (2002).  Managing the learning university.  Buckingham, UK:  Open University.


Dunlap, D. M., & Schmuck, P. A., eds.  (1995).  Women leading in education.  Albany, NY:  State University of New York Press.


Dyer, L.  (1984)  Linking human resource and business strategies.  Human Resource Planning, 7(2), 79-84.


ED397467  The limits of shared decision-making.


Education finance statistics center.


“The Educator’s Palm”—Leadership Article


Edwards, C. H.  (1993).  Classroom discipline and management.  New York, NY:  Maxwell Macmillian International.


Eggen, P. D. and Kauchak, D.  (1997).  Educational psychology:  windows on classrooms.  Upper Saddle River, NJ:  Merrill.


Eisner, E.W. (1997). “Cognition and representation: A way to pursue the American dream?”  Phi Delta Kappan, January 1997, 349-353.


Ellis, A. (1973).  Humanistic psychotherapy:  The rational-emotive approach.  New York:  Julian Press.


ERIC—Resources for Teachers.


Fagan, T. K., and Wise, P. S.  (2000).   School psychology:  past, present, and future.  Bethesda, MD:  National Association of School Psychology.


Farnes, N. (1993). “Modes of production: Fordism and distance education,” Open Learning.  8 (1), pp. 10-20.


Farson, Richard. (1996).  Management of the absurd:  paradoxes in school leadership.  New York:  Simon & Schuster.


Fielder, F. E. (1984).  Improving leadership effectiveness:  the leader match concept.  New York:  Wiley.


Financing schools:  the future of children.  Vol. 7, No. 3.  Winter, 1997.


Finnegan, D. (1997). “Transforming faculty roles,” in Peterson, M., Dill, D., Mets, L.A.  and Associates (eds.)  Planning and Management for a Changing Environment.  San Francisco:  Jossey Bass, pp. 479-501.


Francis, Leslie J., ed.  (1999).  Sociology, theology and the curriculum.  London, UK:  Cassell.


Fritz, R. (1989). “Vision,” The Path of Least Resistance.  New York:  Columbine, pp. 122-138.


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Hallinger, P. & Murphy, J. (1987). “Instructional leadership in the school context.”  In I. Greenfield, ed.  Instructional leadership concepts, issues and controversies.  Newton, Mass.:  Allyn and Bacon, Inc.


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Herman, S. J.  (1994).  Hiring right:  a practical guide.  Thousands Oaks, CA:  Sage.


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Hesselbein, F., Goldsmith, M., Somerville, I., eds.  (1999).  Leading beyond the walls:  how high-performing organizations collaborate for shared success.  San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass.


Holmes, Arthur F.  (1987).  The idea of a Christian college.  Rev. ed.  Grand Rapids, MI:  William B. Eerdmans.


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Horowitz, H.  (1987).  Campus life.  Chicago, IL:  University of Chicago Press.


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Hussey, D. E.  (1996).  Business driven human resource management.  New York:  John Wiley.


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Johnson, A.; & Staten, S.  (1994, June).  “Laying the groundwork,”  American School and University, 66, 41-42.


Johnson, E. (1992). “The future ain’t what it used to be!”  Educational Facility Planner, 30, 68-70.


Johnson, S. M. (1998). “Telling all sides of the truth,” Educational Leadership, 55(7), 12-16.


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Jones, F. (2000).  Tools for teaching.  Santa Cruz, CA:  Fred Jones and Associates.


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Jones, J. T. & Fredric, H. J. (1996).  Positive classroom discipline, trainee manual and video workbook.  Santa Cruz, CA:  Fredric H. Jones and Associates.


Joyce, B., & Showers, B. (1988).  Student achievement through staff development.  New York:  Longman.


Joyce, B., & Weil, M. (1999).  Models of teaching.  6th ed.  Boston:  Allyn & Bacon.


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Kaduson, H. G. & Schaefer, C. E. (2000).  Short-term play therapy for children.  New York:  Guilford Press. 


Kagan, S. (1992).  Cooperative learning.  San Juan Capistrano, CA:  Resources for Teachers.


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Kempton, J.  (1995).  Human resource management and development:  current issues and themes.  New York:  St. Martin’s Press.


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Knowledge Quest on the Web.


Kostner, J.  (1994).  Virtual leadership:  secrets from the round table for the multi-site manager.  New York:  Warner Books.


Kowalski, T. (1998). “Program planning,” The Organization and Planning of Adult Education. New York: State University of New York Press, pp. 87-107.



Kozol, J. (Feb.,1992). “Facilities impact on learning: Savagely speaking,”  American School and University, 64, 38-44.


Krug, S. E. (1992). “Instructional leadership: A constructivist perspective,” Educational Administration Quarterly, 28(3), 430-443.


Ladd, Helen F., Chalk, Rosemary, and Hansen, Janet S., eds.  (1999).  Equity and adequacy in education finance.  Washington, DC:  National Academy Press.


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Lazarus, A. A. (1989). The practice of multimodal therapy.  Baltimore:  John Hopkins University Press.


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Leadership in Organizations, overview.


Leadership Style, EL and Organizational Effectiveness


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Levine, M.  (1988).  Effective problem solving.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice-Hall.


Lozier, Gregory G., and Dooris, Michael J., eds.  (1989).  Managing faculty resources.  In the series, New directions for institutional research, no. 63.  San Francisco, CA:  Jossey-Bass Publishers.


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Marsden, George M.  (1994)  The soul of the American university:   from Protestant establishment to established nonbelief.  New York, NY:  Oxford University Press, 1994.


Martin, James E., and Samuels, James E.  (1997).  First among equals:  the role of the chief academic officer.  Baltimore, MD:  Johns Hopkins University Press.


Marzano, R. J., Arredondo, D. E., Brandt, R. S., Pickering, D. J., Glackburn, G. J., & Moffett, C. A. (1997).  Dimensions of learning:  Teacher’s manual.  Alexandria, VA:  Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.


Maslow, A.  (1954).  Motivation and personality.  New York:  Harper.


Maxwell, J. C.  (1998).  The 21 irrefutable laws of leadership:   follow them and people will follow you.  Nashville, TN:  Thomas Nelson Publishers.


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McCall, J. B., & Cousins, J. (1990).  Communication problem solving:  the language of effective management.  New York:  Wiley.


McCormack, M. H.  (1989).  What they don’t teach you at Harvard Business School.  Notes

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McCown, R. R. and Roop, P.  (1992).  Educational psychology and classroom practice:  a partnership.  Boston, MA:  Allyn and Bacon.


McGregor, D.  (1960).  The human side of enterprise.  New York:  McGraw-Hill.


Michigan School Counselor Association (1997).  The Michigan Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Program for Michigan Schools. 


Millard, R. M. (1991).  Today’s myths and tomorrow’s realities.  Overcoming obstacles in academic leadership in the 21st century.  San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass Publishers.


Miller, William R., ed. (1999).  Integrating spirituality into treatment:  resources for practitioners.  American Psychological Association.


Moine, L. & Robertson, J. (1992).  “Safe school environment through design,” Educational Facility Planner, 30, 53.


Monk, D., and Brent, B.  (1997).  Raising money for education.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Corwin Press.

Moran, C. (1998). “Strategic information technology planning in higher education.” In Oblinger, D. and Rush, S., eds.  The Future Compatible Campus.  Bolton, MA:  Anker, pp. 36-52.



Murphy, J. (1991, July).  “P/A Inquiry: Schools,” Progressive Architecture, 75. 7-9.


Muro, James J.  (1994).  Creating and funding educational foundations:  a guide for local school districts.  Boston:  Allyn & Bacon.


NASP toolkit:  practical resources at your fingertips.  (2003).   NASP Publications.




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Noblitt, J. (1998). “Making ends meet: a faculty perspective.” In Oblinger, D. and Rush, S., eds. The Future Compatible Campus.  Bolton, MA:  Anker, pp. 151-163.



Nicoletti, John, et al.  (2001).  Violence goes to college:  the authoritative guide to prevention and intervention.  Springfield, IL:  Charles C. Thomas.


Nye, R. (1992).  New modular capabilities mean quality, flexibility, in schools planned for tomorrow. Educational Facility Planner, 30, 43-44.


O’Connor, Joseph, and McDermott, Ian.  (1997).  The art of systems thinking:  essential skills for creativity and problem solving.  Hammersmith, UK:  Thorsons.


O’Connor, K. J. (2000).  The play therapy primer.  New York:  John Wiley & Sons. 


Odden, Allan, and Conley, S.  (1992).  “Restructuring teacher compensation systems.”  In A. Odden, ed., Rethinking school finance:  an agenda for the 1990s (pp. 41-96).  San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass.


__________, Monk, D., Nakib, Y., and Picus, Lawrence  (1995).  “The story of the education dollar:  no academy awards and no fiscal smoking guns,”  Phi Delta Kappan, 77(2).


__________ and Picus, Lawrence O.  (1992).  School finance:  a policy perspective.  New York:  McGraw-Hill.


Office of Human Resources:  Support for Managers.


Online Marketing.


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Owen, P. E.  (1984).  “Profile analysis:  matching positions and personnel,”  Supervisory management, 29(11), 14-20.


Owens, Robert G.  (1998).  Organizational behavior in education.  (6th ed.)  Boston, MA:  Allyn and Bacon.


Patterson, J. (1993). Leadership for tomorrow's schools.  Alexandria, VA:  Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.


Pennings, J. M.  (1983).  Decision making:  an organizational behavior approach.  New York:  M. Weiner.


Peters, T.  (1992).  Liberation management.  New York:  Alfred A. Knopf.


___________.  (1987).  Thriving on chaos.  New York:  Alfred A. Knopf.


Peters, T., and Austin, N.  (1985).  A passion for excellence:  the leadership difference.  New York:  Random House.


Peters, T., & Waterman, R. H., Jr.  (1982).  In search of excellence.  New York:  Harper & Row Publishers.


Peterson, Paul E. and Hassel, Bryan C., eds.  (1998).  Learning from school choice.  Washington, D.C.:  Brookings Institute.


Petrick, J. A., & Furr, D. S.  (1995).  Total quality in managing human resources.  Delray Beach, FL:  St. Lucie Press.


Picciano, A. G. (2002). Educational leadership and planning for technology.  3rd ed.  Columbus, OH:  Merrill.


Picus, L. O. and Wattenbarger, eds.  (1995).  Where does the money go?  Resource allocation in elementary and secondary schools.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Corwin Press.


Pittillo, R. A. (1992). “Planning a prototype middle school: A case study,” Educational Facility Planner, 30, 40-42.


Plunkett, L. C.  (1982).  The proactive manager:  the complete book of problem solving and decision making.  New York:  Wiley.


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Raggatt, P. (1993). “Post-Fordism and distance education - a flexible strategy for change,” Open Learning 8 (1), pp. 21-31.


Rebore, R. W.  (1995).  Personnel administration in education:  a management approach.  (4th ed.)  Boston:  Allyn and Bacon.


Renner, W. (1995).  “Post-Fordist visions and technological solutions: educational technology and the labour process,”  Distance Education, 16 (2), pp. 284-301.


Reynolds, Sherrie  (2000).  Learning is a verb:  the psychology of teaching and learning.  Scottsdale, AZ:  Holocomb Hathaway Publishers.


Ribbins, P., Glatter, R., Simkins, T., & Watson, L., eds.  (1991).  Developing educational leaders.  Harlow, England:  Longman.


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Roberts, Dennis C., ed.  (1989).  Designing campus activities to foster a sense of community.  In the series, New directions for student services, no. 48.  San Francisco, CA:  Jossey-Bass Publishers. 


Rogers, C. (1961).  Pm becoming a person.  Boston:  Houghton Mifflin.


Rogers, W. (1992).  “Education for the future of America,” Educational Facility Planner, 30, 4-7.


Ross, D. (1991). “Project management in the development of instructional materials,” The American Journal of Distance Education, 5 (2), pp. 24-30.


Rost, J. C.  (1993).  Leadership for the twenty-first century.  Westport, CT:  Praeger.


Rotondo, D. M. (1993, June).  “From inside out,” American School and University, 65, 42-43.


Rowley, D. J., Lujan, H. D. and Dolence, M. (1998).  Strategic choices for the academy.  San Francisco:  Jossey Bass.


Ruch, Richard  (2001).  Higher ed, inc.:  the rise of the for-profit university.  Baltimore:  Johns Hopkins.


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Salvia, J., & Ysseldyke, J.  (2001).  Assessment.  8th ed.  Houghton Mifflin Co.:  Boston. 


Sattler, J. M. (1998).  Clinical and forensic interviewing of children and families.  San Diego, CA:  Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc. 


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Schmidt, J. J. (1999).  Counseling in schools:  Essential services and comprehensive programs.  Boston:  Allyn & Bacon.  (EDPC545)


Schon, D.  (1983).  The reflective practitioner.  New York:  McGraw-Hill.


Seldin, Peter, and  Higgerson, Mary Lou.  (2002).  Administrative portfolio:  a practical guide to improved administrative performance and personnel decisions.  Bolton, MA:  Anker Publishing.


__________, et. al.  (1993).  Successful use of teaching portfolios.  Bolton, MA:  Anker Publishing.


Senge, P. M.  (1990).  The fifth discipline:  the art and practice of the learning organization.  San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass.


Shapiro, J. L., Peltz, L. S., Bernadett-Shapiro, S. (1998).  Brief group treatment:  Practical training for therapists and counselors.  Pacific Grove, CA:  Brooks/Cole.  (EDPC688)


Skoke, H. H. (1993, July). “Changing the face of old space,” American School and University, 65, 23-24.


Sowell, Evelyn J.  (1996).  Curriculum:  an integrative introduction.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice-Hall.


Starratt, R. J.  (1995).  Leaders with vision.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Corwin Press.


Steingart, S. K.  (2002).  The web-connected school psychologist.  Longmont, CO:  Sopris West.


Swanson, A. D. & King, R. A.  (1997).  School finance:  Its economics and politics.  2nd ed.  New York:  Longman.


Sybouts, Ward  (1992).  Planning in school administration.  Westport, CT:  Greenwood Press.


Teaching and Learning.


Thomas, A., & Grimes, J. ed. (1995).  Best Practices in School Psychology III National Bethesda, MD:  Association of School Psychology.  


Thompson, D. & Wood, R. Craig  (1998).  Money and schools:  a handbook for practitioners.  New York:  Eye on Education.


Tichy, N. M.  (1997).  The leadership engine:  how winning companies build leaders at every level.  New York:  Harper Collins Publishers.


Trembley, Edward.  (1996).  Relational therapy concepts. Kalamazoo, MI:  Trembley.


Tucker, Allan, and Bryan, Robert A.  (1991).  The academic dean:  dove, dragon and diplomat.  2nd ed.  Phoenix, AZ:  Oryx Press.


Tyler, R. W. (1949).  Basic principles of curriculum development.  Chicago:  The University of Chicago Press.


Vaill, P. B.  (1989).  Managing as a performing art.  New ideas for a world of chaotic change.  San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass.


Voorhees, Richard A., ed.  (2001).  Measuring what matters:  competency-based learning models in higher education.  San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass.



Vroom, V. H.  (1988).  The new leadership:  managing participation in organizations.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice Hall.


__________.  (1964).  Work and motivation.  New York:  John Wiley.


Walen, S., Digiuseppe, R., and  Dryden, W.  (1992).  A practitioner’s guide to rational-emotive therapy.  New York:  Oxford University Press.


Walker, V., and Brokaw, L.   (2000).   Becoming aware:  a text/workbook for human relations and personal adjustment.  8th ed.  Dubuque, IA:  Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.


Wallace, Betty, and Graves, William.  (1995).  The poisoned apple:  the bell-curve crisis and how our schools create mediocrity and failure.  New York, NY:  St. Martin’s Press.


Wallace, C. W. (1995).   From vision to practice.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Corwin Press.



Walton, J.  (1959).   Administration and policy making in education.  Baltimore:  The Johns Hopkins Press.


Webb, L. D. and Norton, M. S. (2003).  Human resources administration:  Personnel issues and needs in education.  4th ed.  New Jersey:  Prentice-Hall, Inc.


Web Site Development.


Wheatley, M. S.  (1999).  Leadership and the new science:  learning about organizations from an orderly universe.  2nd ed.  San Francisco, CA:  Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.


Wiggins, G., and McTighe, J. (1998).  Understanding by design.  Alexandria, VA:  Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development.


Willower, D. J.  (1994).   Educational administration:  inquiry, values practice.  Lancaster, PA:  Technomic Publishing Company, Inc.


Wilson, A. and Cervero, R. (1997).  “The song remains the same: the selective tradition of technical rationality in adult education program planning theory,” International Journal of Lifelong Learning, 16 (2), pp. 84-108.


Wolgang, C. H. (1999).  Solving discipline problems: Methods and models for today’s teachers. 3rd ed.  Boston: Allyn and Bacon.


Wong, H. K. and Wong, R. T. ( 1998).  The first days of school:  How to be an effective teacher. Sunnyvale, CA:  Harry K. Wong Publications.


Wren, J. T., ed. (1995).  The leader’s companion: insights on leadership through the ages.  New York:  The Free Press.


Yelland, R. (1992).  “Educational facilities – Across frontiers,” Educational Facility Planner,” 30,  18-20.


Yukl, G. A. (2002).  Leadership in organizations.  5th ed.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice Hall.


Zalatino, S. D.  (1975).   A systems approach to learning environment.  Roselle, NJ:  Meded Projects.


Zemsky, Robert, et al.  (2001).  Higher education as competitive enterprise:  when market matters.   San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass.



Outcome #5:  Demonstrate servant leadership


Block, P.  (1996).   Stewardship:  choosing service over self-interest.  San Francisco:  Berrett-Koehler Publishers.


Brandt, R. (1992).  “On rethinking leadership: A conversation with Tom Sergiovanni,” Educational Leadership, 49(5), 46-49.


Carter, G. R. & Cunningham, W. G.  (1997).  The American School Superintendent: Leading in an Age of Pressure.  San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass Publishers.


Corey, G., Corey, M. S., & Callahan, P.  (1998).  Issues and ethics in the helping professions.  5th ed.  Monterey, CA:  Brooks/Cole.


Covey, S. R. (1989).  The seven habits of highly effective people:  Restoring the character ethic. Toronto:  Simon and Schuster.


Greenleaf, R. K.  (1991).  Servant leadership:  a journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness.  New York:  Paulist Press.


Hoerr, T. (1996). “Collegiality: A new way to define instructional leadership,” Phi Delta Kappan, 77(5), 380-381.


Kleine-Kracht, P. (1993).  “Indirect instructional leadership:  An administrator’s choice. Educational Administration Quarterly, 29(2), 187-212.


Martin, James, Samels, James E., et al. (1997). First among equals: the role of the chief academic officer.  Baltimore, MD.:  The Johns Hopkins University Press.


Sergiovanni, T. (1992).  Moral leadership:  getting to the heart of school improvement.  Jossey-Bass Education.


Spears, L. C., & Lawrence, M., eds.  (2002).  Focus on leadership:  servant-leadership for the twenty-first century.  New York:  John Wiley and Sons.


White, E. G. (1943).  Counsels to parents, teachers and students.  Boise, ID:  Pacific Press Publishing Association, (pp. 98-104).


__________.  (1903).   Education.  Mountain View, CA:  Pacific Press Publishing Association.


__________.  (1923).  Fundamentals of Christian education.  Nashville, TN:  Southern Publishing Association.


__________.  (1977).  Mind, character, and personality.  2 vol.  Nashville, TN:  Southern Publishing Association.




Element 4: Effective Communicator


Abrams, Arnie H. Multimedia magic. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1996.


Aston, Robert and Joyce Scharz, eds. Multimedia gateway to the next millennium. Boston: AP Professional, 1994.


Badgett, Tom and Corey Sandler. Creating multimedia on your PC. New York: John Wiley, 1994.


Barker, Gentlemen. and Tucker, R., eds. The interactive learning revolution: Multimedia in education and training. New York: Nichols Pub., 1990.


Brownell, G. Computers and Teaching. Second Edition, St. Paul: West Publishing Company, 1992.


Burger, Jeff. Multimedia for decision makers: A business primer. Reding, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1995.


Caffarelli, F and Straughan, D. Publish yourself on CD-ROM: Mastering CDs for multimedia.  New York: Random House Electronic Pub., 1992.


Cannings, T. and Brown, S., eds. The information age classroom: Using the computer as a tool. Irvine, CA: Franklin, Beedle & Associates, 1986.


Coughlin, Edward C., Lemke, Cheryl, Professional Competency Continuum: Professional Skills for the Digital Age Classroom. Santa Monica, CA: Milken Exchange on Education Technology, 1999.


Cuban, Larry. The Lure of Curricular Reform and Its Pitiful History, Phi Delta Kappan. Phi Delta Kappan, 75:2 (Oct. 93), p. 182 (4p).


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Element 5:  Scholar/Researcher

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Element 6:  Lifelong Learner

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Element 8:  Program Designer

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Element 9:  Teacher/Mentor

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Element 10:  Assessor/Evaluator

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