ELLEN G. WHITE AND THE GIFT OF PROPHECY :
THE TEST OF A PROPHET
(Parts of this lecture outline are taken or adapted from Roger W. Coon,
Prophets and How to Test Them: Another Prophet for the Remnant?, 17
May 1995. For further reading, see also, Herbert E. Douglass, Messenger
of the Lord, pp. 28-36.)
A. The Doctrine of Spiritual Gifts
1. Seventh-day Adventists are familiar with the doctrine of spiritual gifts and its role in the identification of the remnant people of Revelation 12.
a. "Then the dragon was enraged at the woman and went off to make war against the rest of her offspring--those who obey God's commandments and hold to the testimony of Jesus" (Rev. 12:17 NIV).
b. Two characteristics define this remnant of the woman : it is those who obey God's commandments and hold to the testimony of Jesus.
c. Seventh-day Adventists and many other Christian denominations agree the commandments referred to are the Ten Commandments God gave to his people. These commandments, written by the very finger of God, are eternal and as unchangeable as God's throne.
(1) One of these Commandments is the forgotten fourth : "Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy...."
d. This remnant people, who enrages the dragon in the end time, also holds on to the testimony of Jesus. The corresponding passage in Revelation 19:10 defines this testimony of Jesus as being the spirit of prophecy.
e. Far from being extinct with the death of the apostle John, the Bible indicates that the gifts of the Spirit are still in existence even in the time of the end. (Joel 2:28,29; Acts 2:16-21; Eph 4:11-16.)
f. Scripture, therefore,
indicates that in the end time one particular gift, the spirit of prophecy,
would still be a relevant gift for God's people. It would even define who
that remnant is. Today Seventh-day Adventists are the only denomination
which meets both criteria in the world of Christianity.
2. Seventh-day Adventists hold that this spiritual gift was manifested in the life and ministry of Ellen G. White, from December 1844 to the time of her death on 16 July 1915.
a. However, our claim that
Ellen White fulfills this biblical requirement raises many questions.
B. Reasons For Skepticism
1. For many Christians, and even some Seventh-day Adventists, the belief that Ellen G. White is the fulfillment of this identification criteria of Revelation 12:17 raises many questions and much skepticism.
a. This is not a new phenomena
and this reaction toward Ellen G. White's gift of prophecy helps us to
improve and clarify our presentation of this doctrine.
2. Nineteenth-century skepticism
a. Early Adventist believers were skeptics of modern-day prophets. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century, many people had claimed the gift of prophecy.
(1) Joseph Smith claimed to be a true prophet and was the starting point of Mormonism.
(2) Mary Baker Eddy was the prophetess founder of the Church of Scientology.
(3) Various communities were established on the basis of someone claiming to be a prophet from God : the Shakers with their prophet Ann Lee, the Oneida community and many others. (One such community existed in Berrien Springs.)
(4) Modern Spiritualism was expending. Many people claimed to be speaking to and receiving communications from the immortal spirits of the dead.
b. In a letter to Uriah Smith in February 1859, Daniel T. Bourdeau, a French-Canadian working in Northern Vermont and Canada, mentioned that he had attended a meeting in his home community at which a Mrs. Parker was the main speaker. Shortly after entering the room, Mrs. Parker fell into a trance. The spirit of Benjamin Franklin (1725-1802) had taken hold of her and she went on to speak about universal salvation while extolling the merits of Jesus and the reading of the Bible.
(1) Bourdeau described the scene, "Her [Mrs. Parker's] countenance was bright and heavenly, and none of her actions were indecent and calculated to create laughter or fear. She was wrapped up in a heavenly vision, and had no knowledge of what transpired around her, occasionally moving her hands and uttering a few significant words, to indicate the scenes that passed before her and the things that she heard." (Letter, D.T. Bourdeau to U. Smith, RH, 24 February 1859.)
(2) Bourdeau's description of the physical phenomena attending this vision of Mrs. Parker are strangely similar to those Ellen G. White was experiencing during the same time period!
c. Early Adventist history is filled with stories of people being skeptical about or even rejecting the modern gift of prophecy. Many of our early pioneers (ex. Joseph Bates) had to wrestle with the concept of spiritual gifts and its manifestation in a young lady by the name of Ellen G. White.
(1) Note this typical reaction of an early Adventist as he wrote to James White:
"I cannot endorse Sister Ellen's visions as being of divine inspiration, as you and she think them to be; yet I do not suspect the least shade of dishonesty in either of you in this matter....I think that what she and you regard as visions from the Lord, are only religious reveries, in which her imagination runs without control upon themes in which she is most deeply interested....I do not by any means think her visions are like some from the devil." ([James White], A Word to the "Little Flock", 1847, p. 22.)
2. Twentieth-century skepticism
a. People today are just as skeptical of claimants to the gift of prophecy. Various tragic events have made people skeptical. And we agree with them.
(1) Jonestown mass suicide in Guyana in 1978
(2) David Koresh in Waco, Texas, in 1994.
(3) Disciples of the Ordre du Temple Solaire (Order of the Solar Temple) both in Switzerland and Québec who committed group suicides in 1995 to depart on a voyage to some other planet of bliss.
(4) Poisonous gas attack in the Tokyo subway in March 1995 ordered by the guru of sect.
b. Many modern claimants to the gift of prophecy have some things in common :
(1) Use of their charisma to enslave people, to control their minds and their material possessions.
(2) Abuse of power in determining the fate of their disciples, even their death.
Death of innocent people caught in the web and maze of these cults and
3. We can understand, therefore, other Christians and secular people who have many reasons to be skeptical about the Seventh-day Adventist claim that we have a modern-day prophet, Ellen G. White.
a. Just as much in the nineteenth
century as it is now, to claim to be a prophet entails much skepticism
4. When presenting the biblical gift of prophecy in the end of time and the Seventh-day Adventist claim of its fulfillment in the life and ministry of Ellen G. White, we should take an approach that will convince and answer their questions, scrutiny and skepticism.
a. In fact, Scripture requires
us to test the claimants to the gift of prophecy.
C. The Biblical Imperative For Testing Claimants
1. The Counsel of Jesus
a. Mat. 7:15 : "Beware of false prophets."
(1) The implication is that there are true prophets.
b. Mat. 24:4,5,11,24 : In his sermon on the destruction of Jerusalem, the signs of the times and the end of the world, Jesus warns of the dangers of deception.
(1) There would be false Christs and false prophets.
(2) These false prophets would offer subjective proofs (`great signs and wonders') rather than the Word of God.
(a) Many would arise, and many would be deceived thereby.
2. The Counsel of Paul
a. In 1 Thessalonians 5:19-21:
(1) Do not quench the Holy Spirit (by neglecting or dishonoring his gifts).
(2) Do not despise prophecy.
(3) Prove all things : claimants to the prophetic gift should be proven genuine and truthful.
(4) Hold fast to that which proves to be genuine and good.
(a) This implies prophecy would continue after the time of Paul and would need continued testing.
b. Paul did not mind being tested. He appears rather to have welcomed it:
The Bereans in Acts 17:11 were declared "more noble" than the Thessalonians
because they were open minded (received the word) and not gullible (searched
the Scriptures daily to see whether the teachings of Paul were true and
3. The Counsel of Ellen White
a. Ellen White believed in the certainty of false prophets:
(1) They will arise (2SM 392).
(2) There will be many false prophets and many will be deceived (2SM 72, 392).
(3) As the end approaches, their numbers will increase, both in the U.S.A. and in other countries (RH, 25 May 1905; 2SM 72; Ev 610).
(4) Many of these false prophets will be genuinely sincere, not at all a hoax and a fraud (2SM 72).
b. The results of the false prophets:
(1) Deception (CW 152; Ev 363, 610; 2SM 392).
(2) Confusion (2SM 72).
(3) Rebellion (4T 173; PK 442; 2SM 392-395).
(4) Doctrinal heresies will be introduced (2SM 393, 360).
(5) A discrediting of the legitimate gift of prophecy. In disgust, some would discard Ellen White along with the demonstrated frauds (2SM 77-79).
(6) Supernatural manifestations (false miracles) will accompany many of these false prophets (Ev 610; 2SM 48, 49).
(a) Therefore, supernatural phenomena cannot itself constitute a test of legitimacy or authenticity!
(7) False prophets will be more dangerous to the Seventh-day Adventist Church than even persecution itself! (Ev 359, 360).
c. Obligation of the Church to meet such claimants to the gift of prophecy:
(1) The Church must meet them; it cannot ignore them (Ev 359, 360, 610).
Do not accept anyone claiming the gift unless and until he/she first provides
you with "clear evidence" that they are genuinely from God (2SM 72; Ev
I. The Tests of a Genuine Prophet
A. The Test of Agreement With Prior Revelation
Isaiah 8:20 : "To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not
according to this word, it is because there is no light in them."
1. The test :
a. The teachings of alleged new prophets must not contradict the teachings of old, validated, established prophets.
b. Each succeeding new prophet's utterance must agree with cumulative messages of all the preceding prophets.
c. A modern-day prophet's
message must agree with Scripture.
2. Considerations to be given :
a. This does not preclude the possibility of "new light" coming from God--information that goes beyond the earlier prophets.
(1) Extra-biblical information in addition to that given by previous prophets is possible.
(a) The New Testament gives "new light" not provided in the Old Testament.
(b) Ellen G. White gives "new light" not found in the Bible.
(2) Anti-biblical information that contradicts the earlier prophets is to be discarded.
(a) Isaiah 8:20 says this "new light" is not light at all.
(b) Isaiah also indicates in v.19 that light coming to mankind in a mode
contrary to biblical norms, such as necromancy and spiritualism, is also
considered false and to be rejected.
B. The Test of Fulfillment of Prophecy
Jeremiah 28:9 : "When the word of the prophet shall come to pass, then shall the prophet know that the Lord has truly sent him."
Deuteronomy 18:22 : "If what a prophet proclaims in the name of the Lord does not take place or come true, that is a message the Lord has not spoken. That prophet has spoken presumptuously. Do not be afraid of him."
1. The test :
a. Fulfillment of predictions
concerning future events.
2. Considerations to be given :
a. The conditional element may qualify the application of this test:
(1) Both Jeremiah and Moses mention this conditional element in the same books in which they identify fulfillment as a test. (Jer 18:6-10; 26:2-6; Deut 4:9; 8:19; 28:1,2,13-15.)
(2) Other references to conditional fulfillment of predictions : Zech 6:15; 2 Chron 15:2. (See also "The Role of Israel in OT Prophecy," 4BC 25-38.)
(3) Jonah's prophecy of the destruction of Nineveh is a good example of the application of conditionality to prophecies.
(a) The conditional element was not explicit in his oral message, but it was implicit.
b. We must remember that Satan can make limited predictions concerning the immediate future.
(1) In the case of king Saul, by the time he visited the witch of Endor he had so totally apostatized and had committed the unpardonable sin, that Satan had total control of the man, and could predict his immediate demise with accuracy (1 Sam 28:19).
(2) Ellen G. White adds that in certain instances false prophets in her day were able to predict certain things in a very limited way, and these came to pass as predicted (2SM 76, 77, 86).
Nevertheless, fulfillment of prediction is a legitimate test of a prophet,
but with these qualifications.
C. The Test of Attitude Toward the Incarnation of Jesus
1 John 4:2 : "Every spirit that acknowledges that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is from God."
1. The test :
a. A true prophet will declare, and not deny, both the deity and the humanity of Jesus.
(1) In New Testament times, for the Greeks, it was possible to believe in the deity of Jesus yet very difficult, almost impossible, to believe in his humanity. The incarnation of a deity was a stumbling block.
(2) For the Jews, it was possible to believe in Jesus' humanity (he was the son of Joseph the carpenter). But it was almost impossible to believe in his deity. The deity of Jesus was a stumbling block.
(3) So today, many emphasize Jesus' humanity and reject he was the divine Son of God. Others view Jesus as divine and deemphasize his humanity.
(4) The genuine prophet will support both Jesus' divinity and humanity.
2. Ellen White's contributions to Seventh-day Adventist theology on the divinity of Christ.
a. Many early Adventist pioneers were Arian or semi-Arian in their understanding of the nature of Christ.
b. Ellen White helped in
the acceptance of the full deity of Christ with her statement in Desire
of Ages, "In Christ is life, original, unborrowed, underived" (p. 530).
D. The Test of Fruitage
Matthew 7:20 : "Thus, by their fruit you will recognize them."
1. The test :
a. Christians are not to
be "judges" of motives and characters but "fruit inspectors".
2. Considerations to be given :
a. Areas in which this test is applied:
(1) Fruitage in the prophet's own life.
(2) Fruitage in the life of those who follow the alleged prophet.
b. Fruit takes time to develop even in the natural world.
(1) We should not be in a hurry to validate claims of alleged prophets, give plenty of time for fruit to appear.
(2) Once emotion replaces sound judgment, "there may be altogether too much speed, even in traveling a right road. He who travels too fast will find it perilous in more ways than one. It may not be long before he will branch off from the right road into a wrong path." (2SM 91).
c. In applying this test, do not look for sinless perfection.
(1) All the prophets (except Jesus) sinned, including Ellen G. White (Rom. 3:23).
(2) How then can fruitage be a legitimate test? Ellen White gives a clue in Steps to Christ, pp. 57-58, where she draws a distinction between individual deeds (whether good or bad) and the trend or direction of the total life. She says:
"The character [which is the fruit of a person's life] is revealed,
not by occasional good deeds and occasional misdeeds, but by the tendency
[trend/direction] of the habitual words and acts."
E. Additional Evidences of Authenticity of Prophetic Gift
1. The timeliness of the messages.
2. The practical nature of the messages.
3. The absolute certainty of the messages.
4. The recognition accorded by contemporaries.
5. The relation to outside influences.
6. The physical phenomena attending the visions.
(For some very helpful illustrations of these evidences in the ministry
of Ellen G. White, see D.E. Rebok, Believe His Prophets, p. 108-159.)
III. Was Ellen G. White a True Prophet of the Lord?
A. The alleged disclaimer
1. On Sabbath, 1 October 1904, while preaching in
the Battle Creek Tabernacle to an audience estimated at 2,500 to 3,000
people, and the next day, Sunday, speaking to about 2,000 people, she made
a remark to the effect that she had never claimed to be a prophet.
B. The result
1. The secular press quickly seized upon her remark, exploiting it by interpreting it as signifying that EGW was hereby disclaiming her role as a SDA prophet.
2. "Many" Seventh-day Adventists (including A.T.
Jones) "stumbled" over this remark. They were confused and perplexed because
many held a view of strict verbal inspiration and rejected the need of
interpreting inspired texts.
C. The clarification
1. She stated that she had never claimed the title of prophet.
2. But, equally important, she never disclaimed the role of prophet!
a. "Some have stumbled over the fact that I said I did not claim to be a prophet, and they have asked, Why is this?
"I have had no claims to make, only that I am instructed that I am the Lord's messenger.... Early in my work I was asked several times, Are you a prophet? I have ever responded, "I am the Lord's messenger." I know that many have called me a prophet, but I have made no claim to this title. My Saviour declared me to be His messenger. "Your work," He instructed me, "is to bear My word. Strange things will arise; and in your youth I set you apart to bear the message to the erring ones, to carry the word before unbelievers, and with pen and voice to reprove from the Word actions that are not right. Exhort from the Word. I will make My Word open to you.... My spirit and My power shall be with you.
""Be not afraid of men, for My shield will protect you. It is not you that speaketh; it is the Lord that giveth the messages of warning and reproof. Never deviate from the truth under any circumstances. Give the light I shall give you. The messages for these last days shall be written in books, and shall stand immortalized, to testify against those who have once rejoiced in the light, but who have been led to give it up because of the seductive influences of evil."" (Ms. 63, 29 June 1906, published in RH, 26 July 1906, pp. 8, 9, and later in 1SM 31-36.)
D. The reasoning
(There were two reasons why Ellen White never claimed the title of prophet, though it should be noted, she never disclaimed the role, and the distinction is crucial!)
1. The semantical reason:
a. Ellen White carefully differentiated between a strict biblical or dictionary definition of the word prophet (denotation) and the more popular, colloquial understanding of the term (connotation).
b. She had no problem whatever with the former (denotation).
c. She had all kinds of problems with the latter (connotation)--for, in the eyes of the general public (and some SDAs, for that matter), the term prophet was usually associated with one who did one of at least three things:
(1) Predicted the future, as a fortune-teller.
(2) Was one who worked miracles from God.
(3) Was one who wrote part of the Bible.
d. She did not wish her ministry to be circumscribed by the narrow public apprehension of what the term prophet signified.
e. In the New Testament:
(1) John the Baptist made no predictions (no predictive element in his utterances as recorded in Scripture), worked no miracles (John 10:41), and his utterance formed no part of the NT canon of Scripture.
(2) Yet, Jesus characterized him as the greatest of the prophets, and, indeed, more than a prophet (Matt 11:4,9; Luke 7:26,29).
f. She saw her own role (as, also, that of her Church) as analogous to that of John the Baptist:
(1) He prepared the world for the first coming of Christ.
(2) She (and her Church) prepared the world for the second coming of Christ.
g. When pressed by her fellow church members to give them a "label" to describe and define her role and work, she invariably used the expression "I am the Lord's messenger."
The expression is a biblical one used to describe biblical prophets : Haggai
(1:13) and John the Baptist (Mal 3:1; Matt 11:10; Mark 1:2).
2. The practical reason:
a. Historically, in her day, the term prophet was largely in ill-repute, most often because of the Mormon Joseph Smith who proclaimed himself as a prophet.
(1) Smith publicly, and with great fanfare, took the title.
(2) Subsequently, he taught and practised polygamy within the Mormon colony at Nauvoo, IL (under the euphemism "plural marriage" or "celestial marriage.")
(a) This caused a widespread revulsion among people.
(b) Partly as a result, Smith and his brother Hyrum were assassinated while incarcerated in a local jail, on 27 June 1844.
b. Even as late as the 1860s the term prophet still engendered a certain stigma in many parts of the public.
c. Ellen White did not appropriate the title to herself, not wishing to have any association with the Mormons and their peculiar doctrines.
Even so, in Knoxville, IA, one man was reported to have claimed that he
personally knew James and Ellen White in the Mormon colony of Nauvoo, IL.
But she was only 12 years old at the time specified, and was then unmarried!
(See 2SG iv, preface).
(For more details of about this subject, see Roger W. Coon, "Ellen G.
White's Disturbing Disclaimer of 1904: Did She Really Deny Her Prophetic
Gift?", in Sourcebook, C-5.)
IV. The Question of a Successor to Ellen G. White
1. In the few years before Ellen White's death, top church leaders were concerned about the question of a successor to the prophetic office.
a. GC Vice President M.N. Campbell visited Ellen White in 1914 to inquire if she had had any word from the Lord on this subject, and on whether or not she would live to see Jesus return to the earth.
(1) She had had a dream about 1898 in which she saw herself coming out of a very dark place into a very bright light.
(2) As her eyes became adjusted, she noticed that someone was walking beside her--her husband, James (who had preceded her in death in 1881).
(3) James looked over to her, recognized her, and in astonishment said, "What, you, too, Ellen?" (General Conference Bulletin, 1913, p. 219.)
b. In 1883, she wrote a letter of comfort to a dying friend, Mrs. Charlotte Bourdeau, in which she stated that she also would rise from the tomb on the day of resurrection. (Letter 28, 1883)
c. Ellen White had often been asked if there would be a successor, and she ever had responded with a two-part declaration:
(1) I do not know whether or not there will be another prophet, for the Lord has not told me.
(2) But He has told me that, whether or not my life is spared, what I have written is sufficient to carry the church through to the end of time.
(a) Some, incorrectly, have concluded that if the church does not need another prophet before the end, that this proves there will not be one such.
(b) But Ellen White herself said we wouldn't have needed her, if we had studied our Bibles as we should have: "If you had made God's word your study, with a desire to reach the Bible standard and attain to Christian perfection, you would not have needed the Testimonies. It is because you have neglected to acquaint yourselves with God's inspired Book that He has sought to reach you by simple, direct testimonies, calling your attention to the words of inspiration which you had neglected to obey, and urging you to fashion your lives in accordance with its pure and elevated teachings" (2T 605; reprinted in 5T 665).
(c) And if God, in his wisdom, love and mercy gave us the gift of prophecy in Ellen White, he might well do it again in the future!
On the basis of Joel 2:28-32 there is room for the possibility of more
than one prophet in God's remnant church at the end of time.
1. Will there be another genuine prophet in the Seventh-day Adventist Church before Jesus returns?
a. We must admit that Joel 2:28-32 allows for this possibility:
b. Peter, in his sermon at Pentecost (Acts 2) spoke of Pentecost as a fulfillment of Joel 2:
(1) Pentecost was only a partial fulfillment of Joel 2.
The supernatural phenomena in the heavenly bodies were still a future fulfillment.
2. If another prophet were to arise in our own time, his/her role might very well be quite different from that of Ellen G. White.
a. In Bible times, different prophets had quite different roles:
(1) Moses was mainly an administrator; prediction of future events was a very small part of his prophetic ministry.
(2) John the Baptist (the greatest of all prophets according to Jesus) had almost a non- existent role as predictor of future events.
b. There, indeed, might be
more than one future fulfillment of Joel 2 in the very last days, as the
remnant people encounters difficulties and persecutions.
3. In any event, if another prophet were to appear in the church, he/she must submit to all of the Bible tests of a legitimate prophet, even as all of the prophets after the first one did in Bible times, and as Ellen G. White did in her day:
a. All of the tests must be applied.
b. They are cumulative; and the body of material which tests the gift is also cumulative.
c. Any tests given by Ellen White, in addition to those found in Scripture, would of necessity need to be applied.
d. Church leadership has a part to play in this testing process :
"God has not passed His people by and chosen one solitary man here and another there as the only ones worthy to be entrusted with His truth. He does not give one man new light contrary to the established faith of the body.... Error is never harmless. It never sanctifies, but always brings confusion and dissension.... The only safety for any of us is in receiving no new doctrine, no new interpretation of the Scriptures without first submitting it to brethren of experience. Lay it before them in a humble, teachable spirit, with earnest prayer, and if they see no light in it, yield to their judgment, for `in the multitude of counselors there is safety.'... Men and women will arise professing to have some new light or some new revelation whose tendency is to unsettle faith in the old landmarks.... We cannot be too watchful against every form of error, for Satan is constantly seeking to draw men from the truth" (5T 291-296).
4. Satan's counterfeits should be expected; we should not be surprised when they surface.
a. They may well be accompanied by supernatural phenomena and even limited fulfillment of prediction.
b. "There will always be
false and fanatical movements ... in the church..." (2SM 84).
5. The fact that "nothing is objectionable" in the utterance of any alleged prophet is not in itself sufficient evidence to meet Ellen White's criterion of "clear evidence":
a. False messages, indeed, will contain "some truth," perhaps even "much truth" (2SM 17).
"She may say many good things, may speak much that is truth, but so does
the enemy of souls. The counterfeit will in many respects resemble the
true" (2SM 74-75).
6. Ellen White contrasts "excitement of feeling" with "healthy enthusiasm":
a. "If we work to create an excitement of feeling, we shall have all we want, and more than we can possibly know how to manage. Calmly and bravely, `Preach the Word.' We must not regard it as our work to create an excitement. The Holy Spirit of God alone can create a healthy enthusiasm. Let God work, and let the human agent walk softly before Him, watching, waiting, praying, looking unto Jesus every moment, led and controlled by the precious Spirit, which is light and life" (2 SM 16,17).
b. "We must go to the people with the solid Word of God, and when they receive that Word, the Holy Spirit may come, but it always comes, as I have stated before, in a way that commends itself to the judgment of the people. In our speaking, our singing, and il all our spiritual exercises, we are to reveal that calmness and dignity and godly fear that actuates every true child of God" (2SM 43).
c. "It is through the Word--not
feeling, not excitement--that we want to influence the people to obey the
truth. On the platform of God's Word we can stand with safety" (3SM 375).
7. Ellen White also specifies that special discernment
is not to be equated with the prophetic gift (1T 708,709).
For Further Study
Baker, Glen. "Anna Phillips--A Second Prophet," Adventist Review, 6 February 1986, pp. 8-10, and "Anna Phillips--Not Another Prophet," ibid., 20 February 1986, pp. 8-10.
Coon, Roger W. A Gift of Light (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1983), 63 pp.
--------. Heralds of New Light: Another Prophet to the Remnant? (Boise, ID: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1987), 32 pp.
--------. "The `Tangled Web' of Margaret Rowen: the Bizarre Story of the Woman Who Would Be Prophet," White Estate, 17 October 1991, 5 pp. (In Sourcebook, C-7.)
[Frank B. Holbrook], "The Current Phenomenon of Thought Messages," Biblical Research Institute, April 1986, 9 pp.
Jemison, T. Housel. A Prophet Among You (Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1955), pp. 99-116.
Rebok, Denton Edward. Believe His Prophets (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1956), pp. 79-159.
Spangler, J. R., "The Gift of Prophecy and `Thought Voices'," Ministry, June 1986, pp. 4-7.
White, Arthur L., "Will There Be Another Special Messenger?", White Estate, April 1949, 7 pp. (In Notes and Papers Concerning Ellen G. White and the Spirit of Prophecy, 7th ed., 1974, pp. 107-111.)
White, Ellen G. "Earmarks of Erroneous Teaching" [Anna Garmire], Selected Messages, Book Two, pp. 80-84.
--------. "The Visions of Anna [Rice] Phillips," ibid., pp. 85-95.
White, W. C., "Confidence in God," General Conference Bulletin,
[30 May] 1913, pp. 218-221.