About Me
Online Courses
Competency Resources
Leadership Program
School of Education
Andrews University

Leadership Foundations : Qualitative Research : Proposal Writing
Attention! When printing please switch page setup to landscape to ensure page is printed correctly.
Introduction to Qualitative Research

This course is offered online every fall semester.

Professor: Shirley Freed, PhD Class Times: 6-10 hours/week - your choice

Office Hours: by appointment Phone: 471-6163 (of), freed@andrews.edu

Office Address: Bell Hall Rm 173 e-mail: freed@andrews.edu

Web page: http://www.andrews.edu/~freed

Course Description: An introduction to the philosophy, theory, and methods of qualitative research. Features different theoretical approaches to ethnography. Initial training in using qualitative research methods with an emphasis on participant observation and the ethnographic interview.

Resources: The wonderful thing about teaching online is that I can share with you multiple links and many excellent resources. You should not feel compelled to chase every link to its' origin but should view many of these links as opportunities to expand your understanding of qualitative research.

Required Textbooks:

Clandinin, D. J. & Connelly, R. M. 2004. Narrative Inquiry: Experience and Story in Qualitative Research. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco.

Eisner, Elliot. 1998. The Enlightened Eye. Merrill Publishers. Columbus, Ohio.

Merriam, Sharan. 1998. Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education. Jossey-Bass Publishers. San Francisco.

Optional Textbooks:

Goodall, H. L. 2000. Writing the New Ethnography. AltaMira Press: Walnut Creek.

Hart, Chris. 1998. Doing a Literature Review. Sage Publishers. Thousand Oaks.

Kopala, Mary & Susuli, Lisa. 1999. Using Qualitative Methods in Psychology. Sage Publishers. Thousand Oaks.

Paul, James L. 2005. Introduction to the Philosophies of Research and Criticism in Education and the Social Sciences. Pearson Education, Inc. New Jersey.

Wolcott, Harry. 1990. Writing Up Qualitative Research. Sage Publishers. Thousand Oaks.

Other readings will be available in a packet of articles from my office.

Conceptual Framework: Andrews University School of Education embraces the theme, "True education means more than the pursual of a certain course of study. It means more than a preparation for the life that now is. It has to do with the whole being, and the whole period of existence possible to all people. It is the harmonious develpment of the physical, mental, and spiritual powers. It prepares the student for the joy of service in this world and the higher joy of wider service in the world to come. . . In the highest sense the work of education and the work of redemption are one." White, pg. 13, 30.

The mission of the School of Education is to provide programs based on a redemptive Christian worldview to prepare professionals for global service. To Educate is to Redeem.

We believe we accomplish this mission through six major elements - one of which is research. This element addresses valuing and conducting disciplined inquiry for decision-making. The outcomes of this knowledge base and shared by all programs in the School of Education are that each graduate will be able to:

  • Read and evaluate research in their discipline
  • Conduct research in their specialty area(s)
  • Report research findings according to standard guidelines in their field

While these are the major outcomes for this course, you can expect to see some connections with the other SED core elements - in particularly, the knowledge bases on worldview and communication and technology. Throughout the course we will be challenged as researchers living in a postmodern world. How does our worldview influence the way we do research? We will be sharpening our technology skills as we use the data bases in the library as well as the internet as a sources of information.

What to expect:

Since qualitative research itself is nonlinear, you can expect this class to be an intertwining of reading, writing, talking, and listening as we seek to unravel some of the many issues surrounding interpretive forms of inquiry. Firstly, the idea of researcher as instrument is seminal to this kind of research. So you will be engaged in an ongoing internal critical examination of yourself as the instrument of social research. I'll be trying to move you to a more objective place from which you might view yourself, others, and then to once again view yourself through a different lens. I'll be wanting you to be thinking about the boundaries into which you were born; the boundaries of higher education; the boundaries of each field experience; the boundaries of culture, gender and race. The stories you will share will help facilitate this piece!

As a researcher myself, I will be sharing my philosophical viewpoint which comes from a Christian world view. In this online version of the class, we will not be discussing the 4 gospels, however, should you wish to access a Harmony of the Gospels, - you'll find it fascinating how one gospel writer included some incidents while another completely left out that account. What does that tell us about how researchers collect and tell stories? Finally, it was Antony de Mello who said, "The Master gave his teaching in parables and stories which his disciples listened to with pleasure - and occasional frustration, for they longed for something deeper. The Master was unmoved. To all their objections He would say, 'You have yet to understand, my dears, that the shortest distance between a human being and Truth is a story'."

In this class we begin to develop your observational skills and interviewing techniques. I believe these kinds of research skills can only be developed by using them! So you will have many opportunities in class and outside of class to practice these skills. At first you will feel somewhat tenuous and awkward but as the course progresses you will develop confidence in your own abilities and in the value of these methods as sources of data.

You will have opportunity to read qualitative studies and to conduct a small research project of your own. It's important that you see this requirement as something more than a class requirement. It should involve a serious "wonderment" that you have - something that you have wanted to understand on a deeper level - something that you have wished you had more time to figure out or understand.

I will be approaching this class as a teacher/researcher which means that all the activities and interactions I'm orchestrating for you will be modeling ways that you might conduct your own research from data collection to data analysis and representation. I'll be working hard to develop a responsiveness in you that will build trust and confidence with those whom you might work.

Finally, this class will be very short on lecturing but very long on experiential learning.

So what is qualitative research anyway? Several attempts at explanation might be helpful as we begin this journey together! Thomas Schwandt in Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms states that "qualitative" is a

not-so-descriptive adjective attached to the varieties of social inquiry that have their intellectual roots in hermeneutics, phenomenological sociology, and the Vertehen tradition. Most scholars use the phrase "qualitative inquiry" as a blanket designation for all forms of such inquiry including ethnography, case study research, naturalistic inquiry ethnomethodology, life history methodology, narrative inquiry, and the like. It has been used as a modifier for the terms "data," "method," "methodology," "research," and "paradigm" and as a synonym for "nonexperimental" and "ethnographic." Because the adjective does not clearly signal a particular meaning, a great number and variety of scholars have attempted to define just what is the so-called qualitative paradigm, what are the basic characteristics of qualitative research, and so on. One might reasonably view the entire Handbook of Qualitative Research (Sage, 1994) as an attempt at an extended definition of the term. "Qualitative research" is simply not a very useful term for denoting a specific set of characteristics of inquiry.

Often, attempts at definition involve both implicit and explicit comparisons to the equally ambiguously used adjective 'quantitative.' Perhaps the clearest use of the adjective is to distinguish between qualitative data-nonnumeric data in the form of words-and quantitative data-numeric data. The earliest qualitative versus quantitative debates might have been called "The Merits of Nonnumeric Versus Numeric Data Debates," but that doesn't have quite the same ring to it as the more common designation of the controversy. The same debate also meant defending as reliable and valid methods used to generate qualitative data (i.e., unstructured open-ended interviews, participant observation, and so on) from attacks by defenders of methods used to generate quantitative data (questionnaires, psychometric measures, tests, and so on).

'Qualitative' denotes of or relating to quality, and a quality, in turn, is an inherent or phenomenal property or essential characteristic of some thing (object or experience). Ironically, there appears to be only one variety of qualitative inquiry that takes the definition of quality as its starting point. Elliot Eisner's (e.g., The Enlightened Eye, Macmillan, 1991) explication of qualitative inquiry begins from the point of view that inquiry is a matter of the perception of qualities and an appraisal of their value. The work of Eisner and his students aims to define and illustrate an aesthetics that explains how qualitative aspects of the experiences and settings of teaching and learning are to be perceived, appreciated, interpreted, understood, and criticized. The metaphors he employs for capturing the dual features of this methodology are connoisseurship and criticism (p 129-130).

I often feel like C. George Boeree of Shippensburg University who says:

The most common question I am asked by students considering taking my course is "what are qualitative methods?" Unfortunately, that's a hard one to answer.

I could start by telling you who uses them: philosophers, psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, students of literature, historians, biologists...anyone, in fact, who finds the methods of the physical sciences somehow inappropriate for understanding human (and, occasionally, even animal) realities.

But perhaps the best way to get at a definition is to look at why these people have turned to qualitative methods:

1. For some, the manipulation most experimental studies require at least verges on the unethical. Whereas a chemical substance, a subatomic particle, or perhaps a white rat has no cause to object to being manipulated, human beings certainly may. To frighten them, persuade them of something, expose them to various conditions, etc., even in the name of science, may undermine their self-respect, their psychological integrity, their sense of self-determination, or even their physical health.

2. For others, it is the reliance on measurement that is disturbing. While reducing everything to numbers may be justified in the physical sciences, doing the same to human experience seems to dismiss the other, non-quantitative dimensions of that experience. How do you quantify meaning, for example, or love, or anger, or confusion? You can describe the Grand Canyon using only numbers -- but somehow that wouldn't capture the essence of it!

3. For still others, the issue is control. In order to find the relationship between two variables, all others must be controlled, whether by a reduction of actual variety, or by the establishment of control groups, or by statistically factoring out other variables. But how do you control the lifetime of experiences that a person brings to an experiment? What is the significance of a causal relation that does not occur independently outside the laboratory? And do results established by examining group tendencies then apply to individuals. Control is problematic in complex physical systems; imagine the problem with human beings.

4. Others are disturbed by the tendency to reductionism. In the process of manipulating, measuring, and controlling variables, it is a matter of practicality to go down a level-of-analysis. Hence the predominance of physiological and information-processing explanations for human behavior. But, by their nature, these explanations avoid the very problems they were originally intended to explain -- e.g. consciousness, meaning, personality, self, etc.

5. One more problem is that the experimental method and related methods are intrinsically deterministic. What, in fact, would be the point of establishing causal relations if these relations could not be relied on? On the other hand, many people involved in the human sciences are interested in things that assume at least some degree of freedom. Morality, for example, has little meaning if people are as determined as falling bricks. What are we to do with concepts such as bravery, responsibility, generosity, honesty, or compassion (or, for that matter, evil, guilt, cowardice...) if these are not a matter of choice?

Generally, what disturbs so many people about traditional approaches in the human sciences is that they don't capture life as it is lived. And that, perhaps, is the closest we'll get to an essence of qualitative methods: They are methods that at least attempt to capture life as it is lived.

SO - with that introduction, let's look at what we'll be doing on a weekly basis! Please note that I have set this up so the week ends on Sunday night - I'm hoping that'll give you the better part of the weekend to work on assignments, if you haven't been able to get to them earlier.

Date Objectives

Readings Due

(Check modules)

Assignment Due
Intro Week
Aug 28 - Se3
Go into d2l and follow the module for "getting started" Syllabus Share research interests and syllabus responses
Week One
Sept 4 - 10
1.1. Articulates philosophical issues related to research

Cland 1-3


Qualitative Research WebQuest optional activity
Week Two
Sept 11-17
1.2. Articulates assumptions of basic research communities: positivist, interpretive, and critical and understands basic qualitative methods: case study, ethnography, phenomenology, narrative,

Eisner 1,2, 4

Merr 1,2


#20 Chart of Dis Abs

email freed@andrews.edu

Week Three
Sept 18-24
1.3. Articulates life experiences that affect the research study when self is the primary research instrument - articulates personal bias


Merr pg 22-24

#Self As the Research Instrument - post in bb
Week Four
1.4. Applies reliability,validity and generalizability concepts to qualitative

Eisner 6,9

Merr 10

Rubric to Evaluate Qual Studies - post in bb
Week Five
Oct2 - 8
1.5. Critiques qualitative studies for integrity, rigor, utility, ethics, verisimilitude and other criteria Eisner 5 Eval of 5 qual studies - email freed
Week Six
Oct 9 - 15
2.1. Collects and analyzes observational data from several sources

Cland 4

Eisner 8

Merr 5

#Observation Descriptions
Interpretation - post in bb
Week Seven
Oct 16 - 22
2.2. Interprets data by asking "why" and"what does this mean" and keeping field notes of emerging ideas

Cland 5, 6


(you may want to get a head start on your interviews)
Week Eight
Oct 23 - 29
2.3. Conducts and transcribes data from structured interviews, active interviews, and/or focus group interviews, understands purposive sampling processes

Merr 4


#Transcribed, Coded Interviews - email freed
Week Nine
Oct 30-Nov5
2.4. Explores the use of other heuristic devices in data collection: life lines, photographs, journals etc. and other sources of data such as documents

Cland 7

Merr 6,7


#Description of Alternative Data Collect. - post in bb
Week Ten
Nov 6 - 12
2.5. Analyzes data for "meaning" categories and makes connections across categories, displays data analysis to show connections with theoretical frameworks

Cland 8

Eisner 7

Merr 8, 9

Analysis of Raw Data - post in bb
Week Eleven
Nov 13 - 19
3.1. Articulates the value of different forms of representation: story, poetry, graphic organizers, photographs etc.

Cland 9

Merr 11


Writing up research report - feedback to Shirley on individual basis as needed
Week Twelve
Nov 20 -26
3.2. Represents data in multiple forms and reflects on the process

Cland 10

Eisner 10


#Alternative representation - post in bb
Week Thirteen
Nov 27-Dec3
3.3. Writes research report to include "thick description", coherent interpretation, and reflexivity *Articles Writing up research report - feedback to Shirley on individual basis as needed
Week Fourteen
Dec 4 - 10
3.4. Writes report with strong connections to the relevant literature *Articles #Research Project
Week Fifteen
Dec 11-17
3.5. Evaluates peer research reports. *Articles Response to research project - final exam


Evaluation: Your final grade will be calculated on the following basis:

1) Research Project 400 points

The project should involve a serious "wonderment" you have. I have tried to set up the assignments in such a way that you'll be working on your research project throughout the semester. The # symbol should help you see how the pieces are all connected. The project will include a review of the literature (a minimum of 20 dissertation abstracts and 5 other qualitative if possible, research studies - not opinion papers); a chart portraying the findings from the literature review including author, title, date, research questions, theoretical standpoint, evidence used, results, and other items you might choose; self as the research instrument stories; interviews (a minimum of 1 hour - could have multiple interviews) observations (if appropriate) and transcriptions of the interviews showing the way you have coded them, and analysis chart showing the themes that are common to all cases; a written piece connecting the literature with your findings with at least one alternative representation of your findings.

   3 points  2 points  1 point
 Problem Statement (Background) Clear, focused, stated in 2 - 3 sentences Clear, focused, stated in 1 - 2 paragraphs General, lacks clarity and focus
 Self as Research Instrument Directly connected to the study & logical rationale provided Directly connected to the study  Not connected to the study
 Purpose Statement (Rationale) Clear, focused, stated in 3 - 4 sentences Clear, focused, stated in 2 - 3 paragraphs General, lacks clarity and focus
 Research Questions Stated in the beginning, revisited in the end, and are clearly evident throughout the project Stated in the beginning - revisited in the end Stated in the beginning
 Literature Review (min. 20 diss. abst) Literature is analyzed and synthesized to support (or not) main points of the project, depth of support for each major statement or claim made in the project Literature is cited to support main points of the project Random references to literature
 Methods (min 1 hr interview) Detailed description of methods (when, how, where data collected), connecting citations from authorities in the field to method(s) used, thick description of the interview setting, transcription of interview in appendix  Detailed description of methods (when, how, where data collected), description of interview setting, transcription of interview in appendix  Minimal description of methods used, transcription included in appendix
 Validity/Reliability/Generalization Includes 2 - 3 methods (i.e. triangulation, member check, etc. and supports with citations from authorities in the field Includes 1 method (i. e. traingulation, member check, etc.) and supports with citations from authorities in the field Includes 1 method
 Results (Themes) Clear, concise reporting of multi-faceted themes, strong connection back to the research questions Clear, concise reporting of multi-faceted themes  Thin description of themes
 One Alternative Form of Representation Captures emotion in a powerful way that would not be as powerful in traditional text, uses more than one poetic device (i.e. repetition, rhyme, onomatopoeia, alliteration, varied length of lines, multiple voices, dialogue, etc.) Captures emotion in a powerful way that would not be as powerful in traditional text, uses one poetic device Captures emotion in a way that would not be as powerful in traditional text



More than one, logical, based on findings reported in the study Logical, based on findings reported in the study One recommendation
 Appendix 1. transcription with coding
2. 20 abs (chart)
3. theme chart
1. transcription
2. 20 abs (chart)
1.incomplete transcription
2. 20 abs

2) Daily Reading &Online Conversations in WebCT 300 points

Each week there are a number of required readings you'll want to explore. As you read, write down questions to bring to the WebCT bulletin board. You'll notice some suggestions for discussion starters in the modules - you should not feel limited to those and you should feel free to ask other questions. I will not be controlling or dominating the bulletin board space. Nor will I be counting your posts. I will be looking for quality and presence - not quantity. I will also be limiting the conversation to the one week assignment -- after which I will close that discussion thread so we can start another one. This is a reflective activity and you need to use it to ask real questions and to respond in authentic ways.

Use the rubric below to help you think about your interactions: Four Mental Models of Bulletin Board Posting

 Mental Model Posting Questioning  Reflecting/connecting  Dialoguing
 Definition You post your message as if you were submitting an assignment - often repeating what has already been said - you don't respond to others You ask questions but often they aren't connected with what others have said - you don't engender a response You respond to what others have said - using their name or quoting them - sharing your personal experience or metaphor to explain further You are present in the bulletin board - listening, asking for clarification, sharing experiences, affirming others, extending the conversation




All the time





3) Weekly assignments 150 points

Many weeks, there will be an assignment. These will usually be part of the final project. These will not represent a lot of time but are more to give me an indication of your progress in the class. Please note on the weekly schedule where you should post your assignments - sometimes I'd like you to send those to my email - freed@andrews.edu. Other times - when I believe the whole class could benefit from seeing your work, I'd like you to post those in the bulletin board spaces.

4) Examinations 150 points

There will be one final examination in this class. It will be taken online and timed.

    • Total 1,000 points

Criteria: A 95-100%
A- 90-94
B+ 87-89
B 84-86
B- 80-83
C+ 77-79
C 74-76
C- 70-73

Qualitative References

Berg, Bruce. (2004). Qualitative Reserach Methods for the Social Sciences. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Clandinin, D. J., Davies, A., Hogan, P., & Kennard, B., (Eds) (1993). Learning to teach, teaching to learn: Stories of collaboration in teacher education. New York, NY: Teacher's College Press.

Clandinin, D. J., & Connelly, F. M. (1995). Teachers' professional knowledge landscapes. New York, NY: Teacher's College.

Coles, R. (1989). The call of stories: Teaching and the moral imagination. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Coffey, Amanda and Atkinson, Paul. (1996). Making Sense of Qualitative Data. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Creswell, John. (1997). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Denzin, N. K. (1989). Interpretive biography. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Denzin, N. K. & Lincoln, Y. S. (Eds), (2005). Handbook of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Dobbert, M. L. (1982). Ethnographic research: Theory and application for modern schools and societies. New York, NY: Praeger Publishers.

Dunaway, David & Baum, Willa, Eds. (1997). Oral History. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Edwards, A. D. & Westgate, D. P. G. (1994). Investigating classroom talk. Bristol, PA: Falmer Press.

Eisner, E. W. (1985). The educational imagination: On the design and evaluation of school programs, second ed. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company.

Eisner, E. W. & Peshkin, Alan. (Eds). (1990). Qualitative inquiry in education: the continuing debate. New York: Teachers College Press.

Ellis, Carolyn & Bochner, Arthur. (1996). Composing Ethnography. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Feldman, Martha S. (1995). Strategies for interpreting qualitative data. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Flinders, David J. and Mills, Geoffrey. (1993). Theory and concepts in qualitative research: perspectives from the field. Teachers College Press.

Gahan, Celia & Hannibal, Mike. (1998). Doing Qualitative Research Using QSR NUD.IST. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Hammersley, M., & Atkinson, P. (1990). Ethnography: Principles in practice. New York, NY: Routledge.

Heard, G. (1995). Writing toward home: Tales and lessons to find your way. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Heron, John. (1996). Co-operative Inquiry: Research into the human condition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Holstein, J. A., & Gubrium, J. F. (1995). The active interview. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Janesick, Valerie. (1998). "Stretching" Exercises for Qualitative Researchers. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publishers.

Johnson, J. C. (1990). Selecting ethnographic informants. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Josselson, Ruthellen & Lieblich, Amia. (Eds.). (1995). Interpreting experience. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Kirby, S., & McKenna, K. (1989). Experience, research, social change, methods from the margins. Toronto, Ontario: Garamond Press.

Kleinman, Sherryl & Copp, Martha. (1994). Emotions and Fieldwork. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publishers.

Marshall, Catherine. (1995). Designing qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub.

Mason, J. (1996). Qualitative researching. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Maxwell, J. A. (1996). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Maykut, Pamela & Morehouse, Richard. (1994). Beginning qualitative research: a philosophic and practical guide. London: Falmer Press.

Meloy, Judith. (1994). Writing the qualitative dissertation:understanding by doing. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Miles, Matthew & Huberman, Michael. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: an expanded sourcebook. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Mishler, E. G. (1986). Research interviewing: Context and narrative. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Moch, Susan & Gates, Marie. (1999). The Researcher Experience in Qualitative Research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publishers.

Morgan, David & Krueger, Richard. (1997). The Focus Group Kit. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publishers.

Noddings, N. (1984). Caring: A feminine approach to ethics and moral education. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.

Paul, James L. (2005). Introduction to the Philosophies fo Research and Criticism in Education and the Social Sciences. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Ltd.

Reason, Peter. Ed. (1994). Human Inquiry in Action. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Richardson, L. (1990). Writing strategies: Reaching diverse audience. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Riessman, Catherine Kohler. (1993). Narrative analysis. Newbury Park, CA. Sage Pub.

Scollon, Ronald & Scollon, Suzanne. (1979). Linguistic convergence: an ethnography of speaking at Fort Chipewyan, Alberta. New York: Academic Press.

Seale, Clive. (1999). The Quality of Qualitative Research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publishers.

Sherman, R. R. & Webb, R. B. (Eds.). (1995). Qualitative research in education: Focus and methods. New York, NY: Falmer Press.

Silverman, David. (2005). IDoing Qualitative Research. London: Sage Publications.

Spradley, J. P. (1980). Participant observation. Orlando, FL: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.,

Spradley, J. P. (1979). The ethnographic interview. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.

Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Tashakkori, Abbas & Teddlie, Charles. (1998). Mixed Methodology. Newbury Park, CA: Sage

Tesch, R. (1990). Qualitative research: Analysis types & software tools. New York, USA: Falmer Press.

Van Maanen, John. (1995). Representation in ethnography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub.

Van Maanen, J. (1988). Tales of the field: On writing ethnography. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

Van Manen, M. (1990). Researching lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy. Ontario, Canada: Althouse Press.

Welty, E. (1984). One writer's beginnings. New York, NY: Warner Books, Inc.

Witherell, C., & Noddings, N. (Eds). (1991). Stories lives tell: Narrative and dialogue in education. New York, NY: Teacher's College Press.

Wolcott, H. F. (1990). Writing up qualitative research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Qualitative Studies

Abramson, Paul. (1992) A Case for Case Studies: An Immigrant's Journal Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Ah Nee-Benham, Maenette K. P. and Cooper, Joanne E. (1998). Let My Spirit Sour! Narratives of Diverse Women in School Leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.

Ansaldua, G. (1987). Borderlands: La Frontera, the new mestiza. San Francisco, CA: Aunt Lute Book Company.

Badry, D. E., McDonald, J. R., LeBlond, J. (Eds.) (1993). Letters to our children. Calgary, AB: University of Alberta.

Bateson, Mary Catherine. (1990). Composing a life. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books.

Bellah, Robert N. et al. (1985). Habits of the heart: Individualism and commitment in American life. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Blake, Brett Elizabeth. (1997). She Say, He Say, Urban Girls Write Their Lives. New York: State University of New York Press.

Casey, K. (1993). I answer with my life: Life histories of women teachers working for social change. New York, NY: Routledge.

Chang, Heewon. (1992). Adolescent life and ethos: an ethnography of a US high school. London: Falmer Press.

Contenta, Sandro. (1995). Between the lines. Toronto, Ont.: Between the lines pub.

Heath, S. B. (1993). Ways with words: Language, life and work in communities and classrooms. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Kidder, T. (1989). Among school children. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Kozol, J. (1991). Savage inequalities. New York, NY: Harper Perennial.

Markham, Annette N. (1998). Life Online: researching real experience in virtual space. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.

Orenstein, Peggy. (1994). School Girls. New York, NK: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing.

Paley, V. G. (1995). Kwanzaa and me: A teacher's story. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Paley, V. G. (1986). Mollie is three: Growing up in school. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

Paley, V. G. (1981). Wally's Stories: Conversations in the Kindergarten. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Paley, V. G. (1990). The boy who would be a helicopter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Peshkin, Alan. (1978). Growing up American: schooling and the survival of community. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Peshkin, Alan. (1986). God's choice: the total world of a fundamentalist Christian school. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Rose, Dan. (1989). Patterns of American culture: ethnography & estrangement. Philadephia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Sarton, May. (1973). Journal of a Solitude. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

Stone, E. (1988). Black sheep and kissing cousins: How our family stories shape us. New York, NY: Penguin Books.

Taylor, William and Pease, Franklin. (1994). Violence, resistance, and survival in the Americas: Native Americans and the legacy of conquest. Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Institution Press.

Williams, D. (1992). Nobody nowhere. New York, NY: Random House.

Wolcott, Harry. (1984). The man in the principal's office: an ethnography. Prospect, Ill.: Waverland Press. 


Shirley A. Freed, Bell Hall #173, Berrien Springs, MI   49104-0114, freed@andrews.edu, 1-269-471-3487
Copyright © 2004 Shirley Freed. All Rights Reserved.