Project Title

(Lab Number and Title)



Laboratory Report for ENGRxxx

Engineering and Computer Science Department

Andrews University



Date submitted












Your name, name(s) of partner(s)






Edited and adapted from work done by David M. Beams and Lucas P. Niiler

from the University of Texas at Tyler, Texas  © 2005

I.  Project description


This section should tell why the experiment was performed.  The purpose involves specific principles, circuit topologies, and/or measurements.  These need to be explicitly stated.  It is not sufficient to say that “The purpose of the experiment was to familiarize the student with non-ideal behavior of operational amplifiers.”  An acceptable form would be “This experiment examined the effects of non-ideal characteristics of operational amplifiers on simple inverting-amplifier circuits.  Specific non-ideal characteristics include limited gain-bandwidth product, limited slew rate, nonzero input-bias currents, and nonzero input-offset voltages.”  


II.                Theoretical background


This section contains the theoretical background of the experiment including relevant mathematics.


III.             Methods and materials


This section should contain a continuous narrative of how the experiment was performed.  Information contained within this section should include a listing of the equipment used in the experiment and a description of the experimental procedure.




Use of a table to list the hardware and software of an experiment is required.  Include a list of apparatus containing each item of test equipment, described by function (e.g., “Arbitrary waveform generator”), manufacturer (e.g., “Agilent Technologies”), and model (e.g., “33120A”).  Software must also be listed (e.g., “LabVIEW ”) as well as any application programs developed for the laboratory.  In the case of application code written by the faculty or by the experimenter(s) (such as LabVIEW virtual instruments or MATLAB scripts), the date of the code and the name(s) and affilitation(s) of the author(s) must be given; in addition, the function of the code must be briefly explained.  Test circuits which are themselves not part of the device under test must also be listed.  Schematic diagrams of these test circuits must be included in the report narrative. 


Experimental procedure


The procedure followed by the experiment is given here.  The source of the experimental procedure must be cited unless it is an original procedure devised by the experimenter(s).  For example:


“The laboratory procedure was conducted in accordance with ENGRxxx Laboratory Experiment #1, written by D. M. Beams, Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Texas at Tyler, dated 3 June 1998.”


An experimental procedure distributed in class must be referenced, but the reference is not sufficient in itself.  The narrative must contain enough detail to permit a technically-trained reader to replicate the experiment without having access to the original procedure.


Figures of circuits and of connection of experimental apparatus will be shown as appropriate in either schematic form or block-diagram form.  Include any calculations necessary for the experimental procedure.



IV.              Results


This section of the report contains all measured and calculated results.  This section must be introduced by narrative text.  All data will, whenever feasible, be presented in tables and figures.  Incorporating numerical results in the body of the text is generally to be avoided.  Include calculations required to derive results from experimental data.  Computer codes required to analyze results may be included either in the body of the text or as appendices.  


V.                 Discussion


Discuss the implications of your work.  For example: “The value of input-bias current of the LM324 operational amplifier determined by experiment was -200 nA, which is 80% of the maximal value given by the manufacturer’s data sheet (-250 nA).  This input-bias current resulted in a drift of approximately -1.1 V×s-1 in the output voltage of the integrator circuit of Fig. 5 after the switch was opened at t = 0.  Thus the LM324 is unsuitable for use in this integrator circuit.”   Compare results of theoretical calculations or simulations with experimental results whenever appropriate.  For example:  “PSpice simulation of the Colpitts oscillator of  Fig. 6 indicates that a transconductance of 0.010 S is required for the circuit to become a self-sustaining oscillator.  An experimental value of 0.014 S was found.  One possible explanation for the discrepancy may be that the inductor Q was lower than estimated, resulting in a lower effective load resistance than the value of 2400 W used in the PSpice simulation.”


VI.              Conclusions


The conclusions will summarize the experiment and briefly describe how the results address the objective(s) of the experiment.


VII.           References


This section must be included if there are cited references in the report.  It may otherwise be omitted.