Geert Hofstede's: Cultural Value Dimensions
1. Individualism / CollectivismThis dimension focuses on relationship between the individual and the group. Highly individualistic cultures believe individual is most important unit. They encourage:Highly collectivistic cultures believe group is most important unit. They encourage:
People taking care of themselves Making decisions based on individual needs "I" mentalityPredictors of Individualism / Collectivism Primary loyalty to group (nuclear family, extended family, caste, organization) Decision-making based on what is best for the group. Dependence on organization and institutions (Expectation that organization / institution / group will take care of individual) "We" mentality
|Economic development||developed / wealthy||underdeveloped / poor|
Some Consequences:2. Uncertainty Avoidance
- Individualistic cultures -- people speak out, question, confrontational, are direct
- Collectivistic -- people blend in, avoidance conflict, use intermediariesThis dimension focuses on how cultures adapt to changes and cope with uncertainty. Emphasis is on extent to which a culture feels threatened or is anxious about ambiguity.Basic Traits of High / Low Uncertainty Avoidance
|High Uncertainty Avoidance||Low Uncertainty Avoidance|
|Have more formal rules||Believe that the fewer rules the better|
|Prefer details, specific plans||Tolerate generalization|
|Less tolerant of deviant ideas||Tolerate deviance|
|Consensus seeking||Seek individual opinions|
|Minimize risk||Approve of risk taking|
|Ritualized / ceremonial||Avoid ritualization and ceremony|
|Belief in absolute truth / high expertise||Accept relativity of belief|
Predictors:3. Power DistanceHigh:
- Tend to be low in modernization (or just at the start)
- Often in highly changeable situations (economic, political, social)
- Extensive legislative / judicial system
- Often characterized by "absolute" religions (Catholicism, Islam)Low: Tend to be modernSome Consequences:
- Tend to be stable (economic, political, social)
- Religions emphasize relativity (Buddhism, Unitarianism)High Anxiety Avoidance culture are more resistant to change, often characterized by more elaborate rituals / religious practices
Low Anxiety Avoidance cultures tend to accept competition and conflict, tolerate dissent and deviance.This dimensions focuses on the nature of human relationship in terms of hierarchy.
Basic Traits of High / Low Power Distance
|High power distance||Low power distance|
|Power / Authority are facts of life||Minimize social / class structures|
|Everyone has a specific place||No set hierarchy|
|Those in power emphasize position||Those in power minimize position|
|Respect for authority||Respect for individuality|
|Centralized authority||Decentralized authority|
Predictors of Power Distance
|Wealth||unequal distribution||equal distribution|
Some Consequences:4. Masculinity / FemininityIn High Power Distance cultures: obedience to authority (parent, boss, officials) is expected; language filled with power or hierarchy indicators; managers / teachers tend to be autocratic while subordinates expect direct supervision.
In Low Power Distance cultures, emphasis is on challenging decisions, expecting autonomy and independence.This dimension focuses on how extent to which a society stress achievement or nurture. Masculinity is seen to be the trait which emphasizes ambition, acquisition of wealth, and differentiated gender roles. Femininity is seen to be the trait which stress caring and nurturing behaviors, sexuality equality, environmental awareness, and more fluid gender roles.
Predictor: Climate appears to be the best predictor of Masculinity / Femininity. Cultures in warm climates tend to be masculine; cooler climates tend to be feminine.
Some consequences:Masculine societies tend to see men as assertive and women as nurturing. Men tend to be competitive, visible, stress success, and vocation-oriented.
Feminine societies tend to have both men and women in nurturing roles and much less emphasis on assertiveness for either. Both men and women focus on cooperation, awareness of those who are in need, social accommodation is important.
|BSAD 560 Intercultural Business Relations|
Uploaded: 28 October 1999