Hofstede:  Uncertainty Avoidance

This dimension focuses on how cultures adapt to changes and cope with uncertainty.  Emphasis is on extent to which a culture feels threatened or is anxious about ambiguity.  It is not risk avoidance but rather, how one deals with ambiguity.
Review Hofstede’s country ranking for Uncertainty Avoidance. 

Traits of Uncertainty Avoidance

High Uncertainty Avoidance Low Uncertainity Avoidance
social norms  conservatism, law and order  openness to change, innovation

xenophobic tolerance of diversity

express emotions supress emotions

politics / legal system weak interest in politics high interest in politics

citizen protest repressed citizen protest accepted 

more and specific laws and regulations fewer and general laws and regulations

religion Catholic, Islam, Judaism, Shintoism  Protestant, Buddhism, Taoism, Hinduism

aggressively fundamentalist little persecution for beliefs

Ritualized / ceremonial Avoid ritualization and ceremony 

school teachers have all answers teachers may say “don’t know”

structured learning open-ended learning

family traditional gender roles fewer gender roles

children taught world is hostile children taught world is benevolent