Precalculus by Richard Wright

Dear children, let us not love with words or speech but with actions and in truth. 1 John 3:18 NIV

Summary: In this section, you will:

- Evaluate logarithmic functions with base
*b*. - Evaluate logarithmic functions with base
*e*. - Use logarithmic functions to solve real world problems.

SDA NAD Content Standards (2018): PC.4.1, PC.5.3

The trumpeter in the picture is testing his instrument before performing a ceremonial fanfare for former President Gerald Ford by Air Force One in Palm Springs, California. The trumpet player's loudness is about 80 dB while the airplane behind him is about 140 dB when it is taking off. Decibels operate on a logarithmic scale with a base of 10. That means the airplane's sound is 10^{6} times as intense as the trumpet.

Lesson 3-01 dealt with exponential functions. To undo exponential functions, or to do the opposite of an exponential function, an inverse is needed. The inverse of an exponential function with base *b* is logarithmic function with base *b*.

*y* = log_{b} *x* if and only if *x* = *b*^{y}

where *x* > 0, *b* > 0, and *b* ≠ 1.

A logarithmic function with base *b* is written as

*f*(*x*) = log_{b} *x*

and read as

"log base *b* of *x*"

*y* = log_{b} *x*

and

*x* = *b*^{y}

are equivalent. Notice that in the second equation, *y* is the exponent. That means that in the first equation, *y* is also an exponent. So *logarithms are exponents*.

- Rewrite log
_{3}243 = 5 as an exponential equation. - Rewrite 2
^{6}= 64 as a logarithmic equation.

- Since logarithms equal exponents, 5 is the exponent. The base of the logarithm is also the base of the exponential, so 3 is the base. So, 3
^{5}= 243. - Since logarithms equal exponents, the logarithm will equal 6. The base of the logarithm is the same as the base of the exponential, so the base is 2. So, log
_{2}64 = 6.

- Rewrite log
_{4}16 = 2 as an exponential equation. - Rewrite 5
^{3}= 125 as a logarithmic equation.

- 4
^{2}= 16 - log
_{5}125 = 3

To evaluate logarithms, you need to find what exponent of *b* will equal *x*.

If the logarithmic function is in the form

*f*(*x*) = log_{b} *x*

Find which exponent on *b* equals *x*.

Evaluate

- log
_{2}8 - log
_{3}81 - log
_{1⁄2}16 - log
_{4}$\frac{1}{16}$

- Logarithms are exponents, so we need to rewrite the expression as an exponential. Since 2
^{3}= 8, the answer is 3. - Since 3
^{4}= 81, the answer is 4. - Since ${\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)}^{-4}=16$, the answer is −4.
- Since ${4}^{-2}=\frac{1}{16}$, the answer is −2.

Evaluate

- log
_{5}25 - ${log}_{2}\frac{1}{8}$

a. 2; b. −3

There are two special logarithms that are commonly used in real-world applications. The first is the logarithm base 10 called the common log. The common log is written without the base like *y* = log *x*. The second is the logarithm base *e* called the natural log written as *y* = ln *x*. Both of these logarithms are on most scientific and graphing calculators. Most scientific and many graphing calculators only have these two logarithms on them and cannot calculate other logarithm bases without using properties that will be introduced in a later lesson.

Evaluate

- log 3
- log 10
- ln 1
- ln
*e*^{3}

- On most calculators type LOG 3 ENTER. It equals 0.477.
- Type LOG 10 ENTER. It equals 1. This makes sense because the base is 10 and logarithms equal the exponents. Since 10
^{1}= 10, the answer is 1. - Type LN 1 ENTER. It equals 0. This is reasonable because the base is
*e*, and*e*^{0}= 1. Since logarithms are the exponents, the answer is 0. - Type LN e
^{x}3 ENTER. It equals 3. This is because if it is written as an exponential, it is*e*^{3}=*e*^{y}. So*y*= 3 and that is the answer.

Evaluate

- ln ½
- log 100

a. −0.693; b. 2

The preceding example demonstrates some properties of logarithms.

- log
_{b}1 = 0 because*b*^{0}= 1. - log
_{b}*b*= 1 because*b*^{1}=*b*. - Inverse Property:
- log
_{b}*b*^{x}=*x*because*b*^{x}=*b*^{x}. *b*^{logb x}=*x*because rewritten as a logarithm this is log_{b}*x*= log_{b}*x*.- One-to-One Property: If log
_{b}*x*= log_{b}*y*, then*x*=*y*.

Simplify

- log
_{3}3^{4} - ln 1
*e*^{ln 2}- log
_{4}4

- Using property 3a, the answer is 4.
- Using property 1, the answer is 0.
- Using property 3b, the answer is 2.
- Using property 2, the answer is 1.

Simplify

- log
_{π}1 - 2
^{log2 15}

a. 0, b. 15

Decibels are units used to describe loudness of sound. For every 3 dB increase in decibels, the sound intensity is doubled. For every 10 dB increase in decibels, the sound loudness is doubled. The formula for calculating decibels is

$$\beta =\left(10\text{dB}\right)log\left(\frac{I}{{I}_{0}}\right)$$

where *I* is the intensity, *I*_{0} is usually the threshold of hearing, or 10^{−12} W/m^{2}, and *β* is the decibel level.

A loud rock concert can cause your ears to physically hurt and can cause permanent damage. If the intensity level is 1 W/m^{2}, what is the decibel level of the rock concert?

*I* is 1 W/m^{2} and *I*_{0} is 10^{−12} W/m^{2}. Fill these into the decibel formula and simplify.

$$\begin{array}{l}\beta =\left(10\text{dB}\right)log\frac{1}{{10}^{\mathrm{-12}}}\\ =\left(10\text{dB}\right)log{10}^{12}\\ =\left(10\text{dB}\right)12\\ =120dB\end{array}$$

A loud rock concert is about 120 dB and can cause pain and permanent hearing loss.

*y* = log_{b} *x* if and only if *x* = *b*^{y}

where *x* > 0, *b* > 0, and *b* ≠ 1.

A logarithmic function with base *b* is written as

*f*(*x*) = log_{b} *x*

and read as

"log base *b* of *x*"

If the logarithmic function is in the form

*f*(*x*) = log_{b} *x*

Find which exponent on *b* equals *x*.

- log
_{b}1 = 0 because*b*^{0}= 1. - log
_{b}*b*= 1 because*b*^{1}=*b*. - Inverse Property:
- log
_{b}*b*^{x}=*x*because*b*^{x}=*b*^{x}. *b*^{logb x}=*x*because rewritten as a logarithm this is log_{b}*x*= log_{b}*x*.- One-to-One Property: If log
_{b}*x*= log_{b}*y*, then*x*=*y*.

Helpful videos about this lesson.

- What does ln represent?
- log
_{r}(*t*) =*w* - log
_{6}(*m*) =*n* - ln (7) =
*q* *a*^{b}=*c**p*^{3}= 64*e*^{t}= 8- \(\log_{2} \left(\sqrt{8}\right)\)
- \(4 \log_{3} \left(\frac{1}{9}\right)\)
- \(\ln \left(e^{\frac{2}{3}}\right)+4\)
*e*^{ln(6.5)}− 2- 10
^{log(16)} - log 15
- ln π
- How many decibels is a trumpet played with a sound intensity of 5×10
^{−4}W/m^{2}? - (3-01) Evaluate 3 ⋅ 4
^{2}. - (3-01) State the domain, range, and asymptote of
*f*(*x*) = 2 ⋅*e*^{x + 1}− 3. Then graph the function. - (2-07) Find the asymptotes and intercepts of $g\left(x\right)=\frac{2x}{x-1}$.
- (2-06) Solve
*x*^{3}+ 2*x*^{2}− 9*x*= 18. - (2-04) Divide (2
*x*^{3}+*x*^{2}− 3) ÷ (*x*+ 1).

Rewrite each equation in exponential form.

Rewrite each equation in logarithmic form.

Evaluate without using a calculator.

Use properties of logarithms to evaluate.

Use a calculator to evaluate.

Problem Solving

Mixed Review

- ln is a logarithm with base
*e*called the natural log. *r*^{w}=*t*- 6
^{n}=*m* *e*^{q}= 7- log
_{a}*c*=*b* - log
_{p}64 = 3 - ln 8 =
*t* - \(\frac{3}{2}\)
- −8
- \(\frac{14}{3}\)
- 4.5
- 16
- 1.176
- 1.145
- 87.0 dB
- 48
- Domain: All Real Numbers; Range: (−3, ∞); HA:
*y*= −3; - VA:
*x*= 1; HA:*y*= 2;*x*-int: (0, 0);*y*-int: (0, 0) - −3, −2, 3
- $2{x}^{2}-x+1+\frac{-4}{x+1}$