Research

Current Articles by Dr. Winston Craig

Nutrition Concerns and Health Effects of Vegetarian Diets.

Nutrition in Clinical Practice 2010; 25 (6): 613-620
Craig, WJ

Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian Diets

Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2009; 1266-1282.
Craig, WJ and Mangels, AR.

Health effects of vegan diets.

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009; 89 (suppl):1627S-33S.
Craig, W

Traditional Kava Beverage Consumption and Liver Function Tests in a Predominantly Tongan Population in Hawaii.

Clinical Toxicology; 45:549-56.
AC Brown, P Holck, P Kaufusi, D Kabassawa, WJ Craig, K Dragull, AM Levin, and JD Baker 

“Herbs as Useful Adjuncts to Manage Chronic Diseases”, ch.11

In - Nutritional Health: Strategies for Disease Prevention, 2nd ed. ed. N Temple, T Wilson, DR Jacobs Jr, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ 2006, pg. 189-209.
Craig, WJ

“The Therapeutic Use and Safety of Common Herbal Beverages”, ch. 13

In - Beveragges in Nutrition and Health, eds. Ted Wilson and Norman Temple; Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2004, pages 187-201
Craig, WJ

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Current Books by Dr. Winston Craig

 
  • Optimum Health, 2012
  • Herbs for your Health, 2nd Edition, 2011
  • Nutrition and Wellness, 2nd Edition, 2011
  • Maintaining a Healthy Lifestyle, 3rd edition, 2010 
  • Flavonoids, Food and Your Future, 2009

 

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Current Research by Dr. Peter Pribis


Peer-Reviewed Publications

Beliefs and Attitudes toward Vegetarian Lifestyle across Generations

Nutrients 2010, 2, 523-531.
Pribis, P.; Pencak, R.C.; Grajales, T. 

For more information visit: doi:10.3390/nu2050523

Trends in Body Fat, Body Mass Index and Physical Fitness Among Male and Female College Students.

Nutrients 2010; 2(10):1075-1085.
Pribis, P;Burtnack, C; McKenzie, S; Thayer, J

 

Publications Currently Under Review

Effects of Walnut Consumption on Cognitive Performance in Young Adults.

Under review for publication in The British Journal of Nutrition. Manuscript Submitted 1/18/2011.
Pribis, P; Baily, R; Russel, A; Kilsby, M; Hernandez, M; Craig, W; Grajales, T; Shavlik, D; Sabate, J


Summary:
Omega-3 α-linolenic fatty acid (ALA) is a precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and is related to many neurocognitive attributes, such as neuroplasticity, neurotransmission, and levels of serotonin and dopamine.  While studies on EPA and DHA have been conducted, there are no known studies that have evaluated the effects of ALA on cognitive functioning in healthy, human participants.  The present study sought to determine the effect of ALA derived from walnuts on verbal and nonverbal reasoning, memory, and mood. Sixty-four college students were randomly assigned to two treatment sequences in a cross-over fashion: walnut-placebo or placebo-walnut.  Baseline data was collected for nonverbal reasoning, verbal reasoning, memory, and mood states.  Data was collected again after eight weeks of intervention.  After six-weeks of washout the intervention groups followed the diets in reverse order.  Data was collected once more at the end of the eight-week intervention period. No significant increases in cognitive functioning were detected for nonverbal reasoning or for memory on the walnut supplemented diet.  However, inferential verbal reasoning increased significantly by 11.2%, indicating a medium effect size (P=0.009; d=0.567). Similarly, male moods evidenced significant improvements with medium effect sizes (P=0.043; d=0.708), though females did not. In young adults, walnuts do not appear to improve memory or nonverbal reasoning abilities.  However, walnuts seem to have the ability to increase inferential reasoning and promote positive moods in males.

 

 

Future Research

 
Effects of Almond Consumption on Depression and Seasonal Disorder in Men and Women

Pribis, P & Fisher, J

Summary:
Tryptophan, an amino acid - usually the least abundant - in all natural proteins is of special interest to neuroscientist because of its role as precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin and to the pineal hormone melatonin. Brain tryptophan concentrations and the flux of tryptophan from blood to brain; depend, in turn partly on plasma tryptophan and partly on plasma concentrations of other large neutral amino acids which compete with tryptophan for blood-brain barrier transport. The changes in brain serotonin have been proposed as the underlying mechanisms for seasonal depression and other cognitive disorders. It has been speculated, but not shown for humans consuming real foods, that variations in the carbohydrate and protein content of meals and snacks can cause sufficient changes in brain tryptophan and consequently serotonin levels. Almonds contain relatively high levels of tryptophan and they have the best ratio of tryptophan to LNAAs among nuts.
In a randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind, cross over trail we would like to test the hypothesis, that six weeks of test meal made from almonds as a source of protein and carbohydrates consumed daily as snack will raise brain serotonin levels and alleviate symptoms of depression and seasonal disorder.

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